Indeed all praises are due to Allah, we praise Him, we seek His help, we ask for His forgiveness, and we rely solely on Him. We seek His refuge from the evil in our souls and from our wicked deeds. Whoever Allah guides, no one can misguide. And whomever Allah misguides, no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah, He is One, with no partners, and I testify that Mohammad (ﷺ) is His Messenger and His slave.
The paper is divided into five parts:
- Part 1 - Introduction: Pillars of Islam & Ethics (1)
- Part 2 – Deen ul Islam & Foundation of Ethical code: Pillars of Islam & Ethics (2)
- Part 3 – Muslim Character Building through faith: Pillars of Islam & Ethics (3)
- Part 4 – Pillars of Islam, Morals & Character Building: Pillars of Islam & Ethics (4)
- Part 5 – How to attain high morals standards: Pillars of Islam & Ethics (5)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PILLARS OF ISLAM & DEVELOPMENT OF EXCELLENT MORALS & CHARACTER
PART 4: PILLARS OF ISLAM, MORALS & CHARACTER BUILDING
Jumps to following topics:
- Morals learned through belief in Allah (swt)
- Morals learned through belief in Angels
- Morals learned through belief in Messengers
- Morals learned through belief in Quran
- Morals learned through belief in Qadar of Allah (swt)
- Morals learned through belief in Judgement Day
- Morals learned through as-Salah - Prayers
- Morals learned through az-Zakah - Charity
- Morals learned through as-Sawn - Fasting
- Morals learned through al-Hajj - Pilgrimage
Pillars of Islam
Islam is based on 5 pillars. In the famous Hadith Jibreel, as the Prophet (ﷺ) explained:76,
عن أبي هريرة قال كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بارزا يوما للناس فأتاه جبريل فقال ما الإيمان قال الإيمان أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه وبلقائه ورسله وتؤمن بالبعث قال ما الإسلام قال الإسلام أن تعبد الله ولا تشرك به شيئا وتقيم الصلاة وتؤدي الزكاة المفروضة وتصوم رمضان قال ما الإحسان قال أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك...
Narrated Abu Huraira: One day while the Prophet was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel came and asked, "What is Iman (faith)?" Allah's Apostle replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allah, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection."
Then he further asked, "What is Islam?" Allah's Apostle replied, "To worship Allah Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakat) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan."
Then he further asked, "What is Ihsan (perfection)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "To worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is looking at you..."
(Sahih Bukhari, Book #2 Iman, Hadees # 47.)
ثم قال حدثني أبي عمر بن الخطاب قال بينما نحن عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات يوم إذ طلع علينا رجل شديد بياض الثياب شديد سواد الشعر لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ولا يعرفه منا أحد حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ووضع كفيه على فخذيه وقال يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وتقيم الصلاة وتؤتي الزكاة وتصوم رمضان وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا قال صدقت قال فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه قال فأخبرني عن الإيمان قال أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله واليوم الآخر وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره قال صدقت قال فأخبرني عن الإحسان قال أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك قال فأخبرني عن الساعة قال ما المسئول عنها بأعلم من السائل قال فأخبرني عن أمارتها قال أن تلد الأمة ربتها وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان قال ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا ثم قال لي يا عمر أتدري من السائل قلت الله ورسوله أعلم قال فإنه جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم دينكم
Ibn Umar said: My father, Umar ibn al-Khattab, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him.
At last he sat with the Apostle (ﷺ) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs and said: Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth.
He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.
He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good deeds). He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you.
He (the enquirer) again said: Inform me about the hour (of the Doom). He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring (about it). He (the inquirer) said: Tell me some of its indications. He (the Holy Prophet) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herds vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings.
He (the narrator, Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: Then he (the inquirer) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Holy Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: Umar, do you know who this inquirer was? I replied: Allah and His Apostle knows best. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He was Gabriel (the angel). He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion.
(Sahih Muslim, Book #1 Iman, Hadees #1)
Hence, the 5 pillars of Islam are:
- Al-Iman (الإيمان) - The Belief in articles of faith
- As-Salat (الصلاة) – The compulsory prayers
- Az-Zakat (الزكواة) – Obligatory charity
- As-Sawm (الصوم) – Fast in month of Ramadan
- Al-Hajj (الحج) – The Pilgrimage to Makkah
The first two are compulsory on every sane adult Muslim, fasting is obligatory except excused for weak and sick, Zakat is obligatory if one has accumulated defined limit of wealth, hajj is obligatory only if one is physically fit and able to afford it financially.
The first pillar Al-Iman is also the Core (أصل الدين) of the Islamic System, while the other four pillars are branches (فروع الدين) that were specific to Shariah (شريعة) that Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) brought. And even though that these were also part of Shariah of other Prophets, the methods of performing them may have been different. For instance, fasting was made obligatory on many previous Prophets and their followers, but they may have fasted differently. Quran mentions Zakariya (Zacharias, father of John and patron of Maryam – mother of Jesus) fasted by remaining quiet for three days77.
Belief in 6 articles of faith
The faith is divided into following based on Hadees Jibreel where Iman was defined by the Holy Prophet (ﷺ) as, that we affirm our faith in:
- Believe in Allah, Al-Iman & Tawheed
- Believe in His Angles
- Believe in His Messengers
- Believe in His Books
- Believe in Qadar of Allah, that Allah has power over good or bad
- Believe in Judgment Day
Allah (swt) also explained in Quran:
آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ
2:285 The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], "We make no distinction between any of His messengers." And they say, "We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination."
And whoever doesn’t believe in these articles of faith has gone astray and is a loser.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ آمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللّهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا
4:136 O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray
Belief in Allah
In Shariah sense, the word Tawheed can be explained as: التَّوْحِيد: الإيْمانُ بِوَاحْدانِيَّةِ الله. i.e. to believe in oneness of Allah, that there in only one God who is the creator of entire universe, and all of the attribute of Allah (swt) is unique to Him without any similarities to anything else, and Allah alone controls the affairs of universe, and Allah alone will hold us accountable on judgment day. Since Allah (swt) is the only Creator, then He alone has right to define constitution for our way of life.
When somebody submits to Allah (swt) and admits to His Deen, he or she proclaims their submission by announcing: محمدٍ رسول الله لا إله إلا الله - There is no Illah but Allah, Muhammad is Messenger of Allah
This is the Title of Islam, proclamation to Tawheed and the entrance to citizenship to Deen Allah. This is often referred to as testimony of faith “كلمه طيبه”.
REJECT ALL OTHER ILLAH FIRST:
To Accept Allah (swt) as only Illah, one must reject all other illah first. Thus, a believer must first clean his heart from the belief of any other god or from the worship of any their deity or false power, only then can faith in the Oneness of Allah can be established. This has been stated in Quran in many verses such as: فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللّهِ – 2:256 “So whoever disbelieves in Taghoot and believes in Allah…”
Responsibilities after taking this Oath
The difference between believer and non-believer is not mere utterance of few words, but rather the weight that those words carry.
- The declaration of faith means that we accepted to be citizenship of Deen (Islamic System) of Allah.
- And that we take oath that we will obey Allah’s Law and you will be obedient to Him alone. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ - “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger ..”79.
- And we accepted that Truth is only what’s revealed in Allah’s book ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ - “That is because Allah has sent down the Book in truth.” 80
- And you accepted that the only true guidance is Guidance of Mohammad His Messenger. مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ - “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah..” 81
- And that Allah (swt) sent down book of Truth and guidance with His Messenger that you agreed to follow and you agreed to obey it to resolve disputes. وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ – “… sent down with them the Scripture in truth to judge between the people concerning that in which they differed…” 82
The real difference is to accept the Deen of Allah (swt) as the way of life and applying his instructions and commands in every aspect of our practical life. Unless we learn the teaching behind proclaiming those words and practically implementing them in our real life, the utterance of these words do not make any difference. This is to say if I am thirsty and I keep repeating the word “water” “water”, this mere utterance of word water will never fulfill my thirst, and anyone who believe so is merely fooling himself.
Hence, once we admit to Deen of Allah (swt) after proclaiming the Testimony of Faith, the next logical step is to learn the teaching of His Shariah.
We must conclude few points at this point:
- In Islam submission and obedience is only to Allah alone, and the only reliable and authentic way of knowing Allah (swt) is through His Messengers. Hence, we can only understand Allah (swt) through the teaching of these Prophets (pbuh on them all). And who ever claims to know God directly certainly not from Muslims.
- Allah (swt) sent thousands of messengers who came with same message to their individual nations. Each bring their own Shariah Law (الشريعة) and but the Core (أصـل الــدين) was always the same and all of them believed in submitting to Allah’s commands and laws, whatever those may be in their Shariah.
- Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) is Allah’s last messenger. He bought us Shariah of Islam which is comprehensive Deen (system, way of life). The Shariah of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) abrogated the Shariah’s of all prior Prophets. The Shariah of Prophet Mohammad was perfected and completed.
- Anyone who now claims to be a Prophet now is then a liar because Allah (swt) has descended his final commandment through his Final Prophet. These commandment is for all mankind until the end of times
The deep impact of “La illah illa Allah”
Historically Man has always worshipped some deity. In the beginning every one worshipped on Allah, but later people were misled by Satan and worshipped other deities or false gods, idols, trees, sun, moon, animals, other humans etc..
Regardless of wrong or right, humans have always looked to worship a god, and that human are weak and they are looking for stronger force to seek protection and help. This is part of his nature (fitra) to find who created them and purpose of their creation. In ignorance, he thinks that Sun is most powerful and he worship Sun. Others worshipped trees because they give fruit, or worshipped cow because they give milk. Some worshipped Pharaoh because he was so powerful and strong king and he declared himself a god.
However, Islam teaches that even those that they may seems like powerful or strong, or that these objects may provide human with fruit and vegetables, but they are themselves helpless and dependent on others. Like, the trees can’t bore any fruit without water. That cow can’t really bore milk until she feeds herself. That Pharaoh can’t be god because he died helplessly at the bottom of river. So, how can these be god if they can’t even control their own destiny?
Today, in modern age man has learned lot more through science and observing nature. In fact, Allah (swt) called people to think and observe nature, so that they can’t find their real creator.
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لِّأُوْلِي الألْبَابِ. الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىَ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَذا بَاطِلاً سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.
3:190 Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding. 3:191 Who remember Allah while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying], "Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing]; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire.
In the Quran, Allah Has revealed a lot of verses that substantiates this meaning and directs man kind to:
- Analyse and Study
- Draw conclusions free from other external effects (custom believes and societal pressures).
When human researched they found that earth is a small sphere circling the orbit like many other earths and galaxies in this universe. And that all objects in this universe are functioning with utmost discipline and harmony. There seems to be a pattern of all-encompassing and powerful law that controls such a mammoth universe.
Who is that? Is there another mightier power that is more powerful than trees, cows, sun, and moon etc. Is that Mighty Power even more powerful than the Universe itself?
Yes. This Might is the all-Mighty, the only Allah (swt), who is Bigger than all big, who is Greater than all greats, who is the King of all kings, who owns everything, who created everything just like that, who controls its all, who feeds everything He created. None can move without His permission. None can exist without his permission.
Then, why do you worship anyone else other than this all-Mighty Allah? Why do you obey anyone else other than this All-Mighty Allah? How can anyone be content with obeying other in the presence of such an all-Mighty Allah?
Now, pay attention to “لا إله إلا الله” again. “There is no إلـه Illah but Allah”. It has two aspects – Negative and Positive:
- There is no God: Taking away any possibility of giving the capacity of God to any thing
- But Allah: Attributing it to Allah, and Only Allah
Hence, by declaring the Testimony of faith, one acknowledges that there can be no deity “worthy” of worship and obedience other than Allah (swt). How can they worship Pharaoh (who claimed himself as god) when Pharaoh is created by Allah (swt)? And in the context of creation of Universe Pharaoh or people like Pharaoh are so insignificant.
The deeper a person thinks, the more he gets convinced that the Creator of this universe is the All-Mighty. The more we learn, the more we research --- it all concludes and point to the same fact and reality. And anyone who denies this really merely fools himself and others, and he loses the purpose and existence of himself. Allah created us free, with freedom to think, freedom to reason. We must not allow any one to enslave us, enslave our thoughts, enslave our reasons.
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN ALLAH
★ Belief in Allah promotes practicing good ethics without compulsion:
The submission and obedience to Allah (swt) provides basis for practicing the good teaching. While Islam teaches good morals and ethical values, but enforcement of these good morals is not through oppressive institutions. Rather, they are achieved through elevating individual’s state of “Taqwa” and “Ehsan”. Believe in Allah instill two things in heart of a believer: i) Love of Allah (ii) and “Taqwa” (piety)
Love of Allah (swt) is the most important obligatory act. Every deed that a Muslim does it for sake of pleasing Allah. When the person has complete love of Allah (swt), he becomes humble and submission to seek Allah’s pleasure, in doing righteous deeds, and refrain from evil deeds.
This love of Allah (swt) also installs “Taqwa” (piety) which in essence creates the sense of responsibility and accountability that automatically ensure implementation of high ethical values. The example of this that Allah (swt) stop Muslims from eating pork, now we can witness that billion+ Muslim do not eat it without any enforcement from government, even that government responsibility is to ensure blocking means to bad things. Similarly, Islam teaches us to refrain from consumption of alcohol, and usury (riba), and Muslims in general avoid these as harmful due to their firm belief in Allah. It is this unflinching believe and state of submission to Allah’s commands that ensure that Islamic Society attain high ethical values.
The methodology of Islam is to remove the obstacles and impediments that is harming the society. And then it appeals to people’s heart to awaken their original good nature. It inspires to love Allah (swt), our creator. And establishes “Taqwa” in heart to invoke fear of Allah’s accountability on judgement day. It draws them closer to Allah swt through prayers and repentance. It teaches them rights of Allah and rights of people, to be kind to each other. It distinguishes good and evil. And it presents them good moral values in such convincing way that acquiring them become essential for the love of Allah. Hence, Quran highlights this through verse of Al-Birr (الْبِرَّ) piety as a trait that include beliefs as well as using one’s wealth to help poor and needy.
لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allah, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masakin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and gives the Zakat, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.) in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (pious).83
In another place, the Prophet (ﷺ) defined al-Iman as: “Faith (الإيمان) has over seventy branches or over sixty branches, the most excellent of which is the declaration that there is no god but Allah, and the humblest of which is the, removal of what is injurious from the path: and modesty is the branch of faith”, as mentioned earlier.
Quran uses term called “amal as-salahat” (عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ) meaning righteous good deeds84 that includes all good actions and moral standards, and it consistently preaches piety, humility and a profound sense of accountability to Allah (swt). Quran presents the Messenger as an ideal character, وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ – “And verily, you (O Muhammad ﷺ) are on an exalted standard of character”85 . Quran teaches them to participate in all good-efforts and do not participle in evil and vice. وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ – “Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah.” 86
Love of Allah and His accountability is the driving force that establishes the “Al-Birr” and “Taqwa” in the heart of Muslims, that ensure that Muslims follows good moral and ethics that are prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.
★ Belief in Allah removes prejudice and blind following:
The person who believes in Allah’s sovereignty is open minded. He doesn’t blindly follow other’s opinion. He believes in a bigger deity who is most knowledgeable. Allay says in Quran that He is all-wise: قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ - They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise."87.
A true believer draws his knowledge through this Devine wisdom of Allah (swt). He doesn’t give his allegiance to any sect, group or party rather his allegiance and love is only with Allah (swt). وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلَّـهِ – “But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else)”88.
A true believer believes that the best of us is the one who fears and obeys Allah’s most. إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ - Verily, the most honourable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa [i.e. one of the Muttaqun (pious)”89. Hence, he doesn’t hold prejudice towards any one. He doesn’t side with any particular group, sect or party. Believer is without any affiliation, rather his affiliation is only to Allah (swt) and the truth (al-haq). A true believer always sides with truth and justice, and he reject falsehood and oppression. Believer is the one who has courage to stand up against all odds and denounce oppression, injustice and falsehood regardless of whoever is committing it.
★ Belief in Allah gives a universal view:
With Believe in Allah he acquires a universal view and even beyond universe in the life after death. He looks at the affair of world as mean to be successful with Allah. Hence, all his affairs are to please Allah (swt) to find that eternal success. He knows that his stay on earth is for a very brief period, and during his stay his prime objective is to find success for next life, by fulfilling his covenant with Allah (swt). His love, hate, his prayers, his charity, his work, his family, his friendship, his animosity is only for the sake of Allah’s pleasure. The believer says, قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ - “Say, "Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds”90 .
The result of this believe is that he often helps people whom he never met with his money, because he is seeking the pleasure of Allah (swt).
★ Belief in Allah teaches self-respect:
The believer always attains high level of self-respect & self-esteem. He understands that Allah is the sustainer of universe; He is the one who fulfils every one’s need. Hence, he relies solely on Allah (swt) for all help and fulfillment of his needs. He doesn’t beg other people or reply on them. He knows that whoever he will ask for help they themselves ask Allah (swt) for help . Allah (swt) said: نَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُواْ لَكُمْ -“Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah are slaves like you. So, call upon them and let them answer you if you are truthful.”92 . أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلّهِ جَمِيعاً - "And that the real owner of power is Allah (swt)"93,so one should only ask for help. When a believer acquires this knowledge and understanding of Tawheed, he never bows in front of any other false good, or dictator, or any other power. He is not awed by any creature nor is he mesmerized with any one’s greatness, except Allah (swt).
★ Belief in Allah teaches humbleness and modesty:
While the believer has self-esteem, he is not proud. He knows that he is a slave or servant of Allah (swt) and he has limited power and skill, so there is no need to brag it. Hence, a believer is never proud or arrogant. He remains very humble and modest. Allah (swt) said: وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا – “And the servants of the Beneficent Allah are they who walk on the earth in humbleness, and when the ignorant address them, they say: Peace.”94
Prophet has said that Modesty is part of Iman [Reported by Bukhari]. Islam advises its follower to practice modesty. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Every religion has its character. Modesty is Islam’s character”[Muwatta Malik]. During the time of Moses (as) Jewish teaching were courage and toughness, and Isa (as) generosity was the essential part of Christian teachings. Islam is distinguished for its modesty.
Iman and modesty are twins. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Modesty and Iman are joined together. If one is gone, the other will also disappear” [Hakim]. When a person loses his Iman he start to commits sins, first he do small sins and when the fear of Allah (swt) is gone from his heart, he commits bigger sins. Similarly, modesty also has similar stages. A person moves from stage to stage until he moves out of Islam. Prophet (ﷺ) said: “When Allah wants to destroy someone, He deprives him of modesty. When modesty is taken away from him, he becomes most despicable. When he becomes detestable, he loses trust. When the trust is taken away from him, he becomes a cheat. When he becomes a cheat, he loses Allah’s mercy. Then he is condemned and his link with Islam is lost” 95
The believer has attitude that all his wealth and power is from Allah (swt), and Allah gives to whomever he wishes. If he has good skills, it is from Allah. If he has wealth it is from Allah. If he has power or he is king, then also it is from Allah (swt). Hence, a believer is very down to earth, humble and modest. He never take anyone’s wealth illegally, or violate any one’s right.
★ Belief in Allah teaches that we denounce obscenity:
Islam denounces obscenity. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “If whatever consists of obscenity will be destroyed and whatever constitutes modesty will flourish”96. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Modesty is Iman and its abode is Paradise, obscenity is animosity and its destination is Hell”97. Modesty is gift of nature and its part of our fitra. There are some people who are shameless and commit act of shame in public and expose themselves. A person with good Iman will never commit such act and displays high morals and modesty either they are amongst public or private.
★ Belief in Allah teaches mercy and kindness:
Allah swt is merciful and he except same from his creation. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah is merciful to those who are merciful to others. So be merciful on the inhabitants of earth. Allah will have mercy on you. Preserving relations with the kin is prescribed by Allah. He who maintained the blood relations, strengthened his bond with Allah; he who served them, is cut off from Allah”98. Mercy is an attribute of Allah (swt) which is inherent in human nature. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “When Allah created the heavens and the earth, He created 100 mercies. Each mercy is identical between the heaven and the earth. One of its parts He bestowed on the earth, by which the mother loves her child and the wild animals and birds are merciful to one another.” 99
★ Belief in Allah teaches that we keep away from false hopes:
Believer knows that there is no salvation except do the righteous deeds and avoid sin, corruption, oppression. He doesn’t carry any false hopes that he will be saved from Allah’s accountability from anyone else. This belief keeps him upright and virtuous. He doesn’t think that he is above law and Allah’s accountability, and every action he does will be questioned. Like some believe that God’s son died for their sins, so they don’t have accountability, or those who think that they will only remain in hell for few days and they will be spared after. وَقَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَّ أَيَّاماً مَّعْدُودَةً قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللّهُ عَهْدَهُ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ – “And they say: Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you received a promise from Allah, then Allah will not fail to perform His promise, or do you speak against Allah what you do not know?”100 . Neither the believer is like atheists who do not believe in accountability of God. They think they are independent and can do whatever they feel like, and they worship their own wishes and desires.
★ Belief in Allah helps in achieving peace at heart:
Believer is always peaceful at heart. He knows that has the power and might of Allah (swt) with him. The word Iman is based on word peace (الأمن) which means (الطمأنية) tranquility. A truthful person is satisfied (يطمئن) with his news while a liar is not. Like they say in Arabic “الصدق طمانية و الكذب ريبة”, “truth is tranquility while lie is suspicion” . Hence, the believer is always calm and never become despondent. He knows that even though whole earth is unable to help him, Allah (swt) will help him with his mercy. Allah is always listening to our prayers: وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُواْ لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُواْ بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ – “And when My servants ask you concerning Me, then surely I am very near [to them with my knowledge]; I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he calls on Me, so they should answer My call and believe in Me that they may walk in the right way” .
★ Belief in Allah helps in keeping High spirits:
The believer does not become despondent and broken-hearted under any circumstances. He relies on Allah’s help. Allah (swt) said: وَلاَ تَهِنُوا وَلاَ تَحْزَنُوا وَأَنتُمُ الأَعْلَوْنَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ – “And be not infirm, and be not grieving, and you shall have the upper hand if you are believers” . He also believes: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ – “Surely those who say, Our Lord is Allah, then they continue on the right way, they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve” . He is not like unbelievers who have limited power or knowledge and when trouble comes they despair. He knows Allah (swt) say that if he can’t find help through worldly means, he can always count on Allah (swt) for help.Allah (swt) said: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ – “(As for) those who say: Our Lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them, saying: Fear not, nor be grieved, and receive good news of the garden which you were promised” .
Abu Huraira reported: “Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying that Allah (swt) thus stated: I am near to the thought of My servant as he thinks about Me, and I am with him as he remembers Me. And if he remembers Me in his heart, I also remember him in My Heart, and if he remembers Me in assembly I remember him in assembly, better than his (remembrance), and if he draws near Me by the span of a palm, I draw near him by the cubit, and if he draws near Me by the cubit I draw near him by the space (covered by) two hands. And if he walks towards Me, I rush towards him.”[Sahih al-Muslim].
★ Belief in Allah teaches Patience & Perseverance:
Believer has high degree of patience (صبر) and determination (أستقامة) due to his reliance on Allah (swt) (توكلت علي الله). He carries strong heart but very forgiving. His faith is strong that all the worries of these worldly affairs don’t shake his belief. Because he didn’t rely on false deities or worldly powers, instead he chose the most powerful God as his ally. And Allah is the most trusted ally: فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىَ لاَ انفِصَامَ لَهَا – “Whoever disbelieves in Taghoot and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break” . And when Allah is with him, no one can overpower him: إِن يَنصُرْكُمُ اللّهُ فَلاَ غَالِبَ لَكُمْ وَإِن يَخْذُلْكُمْ فَمَن ذَا الَّذِي يَنصُرُكُم مِّن بَعْدِهِ وَعَلَى اللّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكِّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ – “If Allah helps you, none can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you? And in Allah (Alone) let believers put their trust”
★ Belief in Allah teaches how to be Content and satisfied:
A believer is always content (قناعة) and satisfied (راضي) with Allah. He is not into any status race. He is happy with whatever means and provisions (رزق) Allah (swt) has provided him. He is always earning his living through level halal means. He doesn’t take bribes and kickbacks. He doesn’t steal or loot. He knows provisions are in the hands of Allah (swt) and he gives to whoever he wills: قُلْ إِنَّ الْفَضْلَ بِيَدِ اللّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ - يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ – “Say: "All the bounty is in the Hand of Allah; He grants to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures needs, the All-Knower." He selects for His Mercy whom He wills and Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.”
★ Belief in Allah teaches Unity & Discipline:
Tawheed is the only banner under which all human beings can be truly united. Where no one can force his opinion over the other person, and order and law is only for Allah (swt) to define. It creates a sense of oneness and unity in the nation. It gives them purpose and objective. It provides them with common collective goal. It gives them responsibility. It brings the sense of accountability. It transforms the entire society and disciplines their affairs. It inspires them to be truthful and perform righteous deeds. There is no law or governance on earth that can transform the nation in such a way without forceful measure. Even with forceful measure no law can true transforms the nation to such high level of ethics and moral.
In January 16, 1920, Americans passed 18th Amendment. This Amendment banned the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the United States. However, the law couldn’t be enforced and was repealed in 1933.
Let’s compare that to Islamic Shariah, were Allah (swt) guidance implemented the best of Morals without any resistance or enforcement:
- In Madinah, 1400+ years back the verse of prohibition of alcohol were revealed, and as soon as Muslims heard them they immediately stopped drinking alcohol right there and then. Those who were in state of drinking broke their bottles and vomited it out. Since, then all believing Muslims find no needs to go near it.
- Allah (swt) prescribed five times prayers. Muslims accepted this responsibility and perform their prayers regularly.
- Allah (swt) prescribed fasting in Month Ramadan. Muslims accepted this honor and perform fasting every year in this blessed month. No one forces them, no one passes laws on them, and they simply chose to obey Allah (swt).
This is the real power of Tawheed, once implemented. Which other system can transform society this way?
Belief in His Angels
The word مَلَك (angel) is rooted form ا ل ك. It's original is the word "مَلاك" malak (i.e. remove alif to make it easier to read). It is drrived from word اُلُوْكْ (means convey message)109. They are called "الملك" (angel) because they convey (messages) from Allah (swt). Belief in angles is one of the principles of faith. A person’s Iman is not complete until he believes in Angles. Allah (swt) said:
آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ
2:285 “The Messenger (Muhammad SAW) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers” [al-Baqarah]
The main purpose for belief in Angles is to understand their true status and purpose, because pre-Islam systems or religions also believed in Angles and often associated some wrong ideas about them. Some of them regarded them as super natural powers that controls various affairs of universe, others regarded them as being beings that control various ministerial affairs in heaven, like some control air, others rain, light, temperature, fire. Some considered them vice and helper of God. Some considered them physical beings and other didn’t . Hence, various people had various understanding of them that often results in pure Shirk. Thus, Allah (swt) clarified their status as mere servants and slaves of Allah (swt), so that Muslims don’t fall into Shirk like nations before them.
Following is the summary of belief in Angels:
- Belief they exists
- Belief they are slave of Allah (swt) who created them. Allah (swt) command them to do things and they are not capable of disobeying Allah (swt).
- Belief that Allah (swt) gave them long life and they don’t die until their appointed time comes.
- Belief that Angles have different tasks, some of them just praise and pray to Allah, other bears the Throne, some are keeper of Paradise and Hell, some are appointed to take soul of human when they die.
- Belief that some of the Angles are messengers, whom Allah (swt) send to human on earth to convey the message. Some of them come to help humans, others to fight enemies of Allah (swt).
- Belief that Angles have very high status and their allegiance to Allah (swt) and honesty is beyond doubt.
Quran makes commentary on the status of angle that leave no doubt in regarding the status of Angles. Allah (swt) says: وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَنُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ - لَا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُم بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ - يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى وَهُم مِّنْ خَشْيَتِهِ مُشْفِقُونَ – “And they say: "The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son (or children)." Glory to Him! They (those whom they call children of Allah i.e. the angels, Iesa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary), Uzair (Ezra), etc.), are but honored slaves. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His Command. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.” . This clarified that the angels have no partnership with Allah (swt) in any affair of universe, in fact, they are honored servants and they immediately obey any commands that Allah (swt) gives them.
The believe in angel is considered so important, that denying them takes one out of Islam. This is because denying their existence could only mean that the person doesn’t consider Quran to be correct (that describes angles in great number of version), and associate it as a lie toward the Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ). The Angel Jibril is the one who brought “Wahi” from Allah and conveyed it to the Prophet. وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ - نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ- عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ – “And truly, this (the Quran) is a revelation from the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists),Which the trustworthy Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] has brought down; Upon your heart (O Muhammad ﷺ) that you may be (one) of the warners,” . Hence, deny the status of Angel is equivalent denying the Message itself.
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN ANGELS
★ Belief in Angel helps strengthen belief:
The status of Angle is very high and honourable. Allah (swt) called them: فِي صُحُفٍ مُّكَرَّمَةٍ - مَّرْفُوعَةٍ مُّطَهَّرَةٍ - بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ - كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ – “(It is) in Records held (greatly) in honour (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz). Exalted (in dignity), purified, In the hands of scribes (angels). Honourable and obedient.”113.
Allah (swt) said: وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ - نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ – “And truly, this (the Quran) is a revelation from the Lord of the Alameen, Which the trustworthy Rooh (Jibreel (Gabriel)) has brought down”114.
We can learn from this that the purpose to explain the honorable status of Angles is for us to accept it as reliable medium. Because the belief in Allah and belief in Mohammad (ﷺ) as Messenger of Allah is both confirmed via the Revelations that the Angel Gabriel brought down.
The firm belief in Angles and their honorable character will also strengthen belief in the correctness of Deen Islam. It will enhance the confidence in the truthfulness of Islamic teaching and give us more confidence to be vicegerent of Allah (swt).
★ Belief in Angel helps instill sensibility:
Secondly, the Angles are appointed to record our deeds, both good and bad. Allah (swt) said: وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ - كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ - يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ - “But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you , Kiraman (honorable) Katibeen writing down (your deeds). They know all that you do.” 115.
This is to remind the human of their accountability, and their continued test in every day of life. Every deed they do is recorded by the Angels, and this register of all our good or bad deeds will be presented in front of Allah (swt).
Usually, when a person is alone he may indulge into non-sensible acts. This serves as a reminder that we are never alone and every act we do is watched and witnessed by Allah (swt) and his guardian Angles.
Belief in His Messengers
The word Nabi “نَـبِـيّ” (Prophet) is derived from the word Naba “نَبَأ” which means “news”. The Prophet is called Nabi because he is told by Allah (swt) and that he tells us what Allah’s commands were revealed to him. The word Nubuwwah “نُـبُـوَّة” (Prophet hood) is derived from the word Nabwah “نَبَأَ”, which means a raised portion of land. The Arabs used word Nabi to refer to landmarks which could be used for navigation. The Prophet is the one who has a high status in this world and in the Hereafter, and the Prophets are the most noble of creation, the signpost by whom people are guided and reformed116.
The word Rusool “رسول” refers to the person who takes the news from one person to another. So the Messengers are called Rusool because they receive direction from Allah (swt) and they convey this to us. Quran also used the word Hadi “هادي” meaning the one who guide to the right path.
Being the Messenger (رسول) is something additional to being a Prophet (نَـبِـيّ). Messenger is the one to whom the Laws (Shariah) are revealed, whereas a Prophet is one who is sent to confirm the law of the one who came before him. Hence, every Messenger is a Prophet but every Prophet is not a Messenger. For instance, Bani Isreal was led by many Prophets. Every time a Prophet died, another Prophet would come to replace him. However, they all confirmed the Laws of Moosa (Moses) and Tawraat (Torah), whereas Moosa “موسى” (pbuh) was the Messenger and the Prophet.
As we have explained earlier, Allah (swt) sent His Messengers to all nations that lived on Earth until Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ), who was the last of the Messengers. These Messengers brought the true guidance from the Creator to help us recognize the Creator. Allah (swt) said in the Quran that He sent Messengers to every nation, to inform them about their Creator and the purpose of their creation, and to lead their life with balance and justice.
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ
57:25 We have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice. 117
Hence, Muslims must believe in all Messengers of Allah (swt) and denying any one will takes them out of pale of Islam. Quran has mentioned many Messengers by name (25 Prophets and Messengers) but the exact number and names of all the Messengers are not known to us118. However, according to one narration, The Messenger (ﷺ) mentioned that the number of Prophets was 124,000 and the number of Messengers was 300119 (Allahu Alam). So, we believe that all of them were from Allah (swt) and brought the guidance from Him. And that Allah (swt) may have sent messengers to China, India, Russia, Africa, Europe etc in the past and though Muslims believes in all of them but we can’t identify any particular person as a Messenger except the ones mentioned in the Quran and by the Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ). And also that we must be careful about saying anything bad to the founders of other historic religions, that they may have been Messenger of Allah (swt) but their follower have altered their religion, similar to how Christian and Jews altered religion of Moses and Jesus, and now a days some Muslims are hell bent in altering religion of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ). Hence, it is important that we express our opinion carefully as we may inadvertently say something bad to any Messenger of Allah (swt).
And also Muslims must not make any distinction between different Prophets, as Allah (swt) said: قُلْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَالنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ – “Say (O Muhammad): "We believe in Allah and in what has been sent down to us, and what was sent down to Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaque (Isaac), Yaqoob (Jacob) and Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Yaqoob (Jacob)) and what was given to Moosa (Moses), Iesa (Jesus) and the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between one another among them and to Him (Allah) we have submitted (in Islam)."”120
Summary of the purpose of sending Messengers of Allah (swt) is following:
- Messengers were sent to every nation to guide them to Path of Allah (swt), to teach people to become Allah’s slave and to reject Taghoot:
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوتَ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى اللّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلالَةُ فَسِيرُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَانظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ
16:36 And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], "Worship Allah and avoid taghoot." And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers.121
- Warning & Glad tidings: Messengers warn them to follow Allah’s commands and gave them glad tidings:
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ – “Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a warner.” 122
- Glad tidings: Allah (swt) explained that obedience to Him and His Messenger will earn paradise:
وَمَن يُطِعِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ - “whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow [in Paradise], to abide there in, and that will be great success.” 124
- Warnings: And whosoever disobeys will earn Hell fire:
وَمَن يَعْصِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ - “And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits – He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment.” 125
- Glad tidings: Allah (swt) explained that obedience to Him and His Messenger will earn paradise:
- Educate and Purify: And these Messengers gave us guidance from Allah, taught us knowledge and provided a path to purify us:
كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ - “Similarly We have sent among you a Messenger from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you the Book and wisdom and teaching you that which you did not know.” 123
- Establish Proof: Allah said that He will judge us only after we have received the Message from His Messengers, and everyone will be judged based on his own actions:
فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِينَ - فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَيْهِم بِعِلْمٍ وَمَا كُنَّا غَآئِبِينَ - “Then We will surely question those to whom [a message] was sent, and We will surely question the messengers. 7:7 Then We will surely relate [their deeds] to them with knowledge, and We were not [at all] absent.” 126
مَّنِ اهْتَدَى فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدي لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولاً - “Whoever goes right, then he goes right only for the benefit of his ownself. And whoever goes astray, then he goes astray to his own loss. No one laden with burdens can bear anothers burden. And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).” 127
تَكَادُ تَمَيَّزُ مِنَ الْغَيْظِ كُلَّمَا أُلْقِيَ فِيهَا فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ- قَالُوا بَلَى قَدْ جَاءنَا نَذِيرٌ فَكَذَّبْنَا وَقُلْنَا مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ كَبِيرٍ - “It almost bursts with rage. Every time a company is thrown into it, its keepers ask them, "Did there not come to you a warner. 67:9 They will say," Yes, a warner had come to us, but we denied and said, 'Allah has not sent down anything. You are not but in great error.' "” 128
- Managing affairs of the Ummah: Messengers establishes a community (Jammah) and unite them as one ummah. They judge amongst the people according the commands and shariah of Allah (swt), as Allah said: فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ – “So judge between them by what Allah has revealed,” 129
- Thus, those who received His message will not have excuse of ignorance on day of judgement:
رُّسُلاً مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا - “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful” 130
The difference between Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) and other Messengers is three fold:
- All previous Messengers were sent to a specific nation in specific region of Earth. Their teachings were also limited for a specific time and period. However, Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) was sent to entire mankind and his guidance is for all mankind until the end of times.
- It is a fact that the teaching of all previous messengers except Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) have all but disappeared, and whatever remained of it is so much altered and mixed with falsely made up stories that it is very difficult to recognize the original teachings. Whist the teaching of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) and the Quran is preserved in its originality, and Allah (swt) has promised to protect it until end of times.
- Since, the teachings of previous Messengers were limited to specific nation and time, their laws relating to ethics and moral code, justice, trade and financial deals, civilian laws were incomplete. Allah (swt) through his final Messenger Prophet Mohamad (ﷺ) completed the Religion and perfected it. It includes all the teachings from previous Messengers, and abrogated what was specific to those people and time.
Thus, now the teaching of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) is the only trustable source to reach guidance of Allah (swt). And if one wants to follow teachings of Moses and Jesus, who also brought the religion of Allah (swt) to their nations, then he has no other choice but to accept the teachings of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) who left with us the trustable source to guidance from Allah (swt) in Quran and Sunnah.
Thus, now the teaching of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) is the only trustable source to reach guidance of Allah (swt). And if one wants to follow teachings of Moses and Jesus, who also brought the religion of Allah (swt) to their nations, then he has no other choice but to accept the teachings of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) who left with us the trustable source to guidance from Allah (swt) in Quran and Sunnah.
The belief in Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) includes four:
- That he is the Messenger of Allah (swt) who brought us the Book of Guidance “Quran”
- That he brought us the Deen that is complete and perfected, and it’s applicable to all mankind until end of times
- That he receives his guidance from Allah (swt) and that his knowledge and guidance his perfect from any defects
- That he is the Last and Final Messenger of Allah (swt) who has perfected the Deen of Allah (swt), and there will be no further Messenger after him, as none is needed after the Deen is completed and perfected. And teachings of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) are for remainder of mankind.
Thus, who ever rejects the belief in Messenger is not considered a Muslim.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّـهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا - أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ
Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but reject others," and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers….
Importance of Messengers of Allah
As we have mentioned in the introduction that for any System or civilization to be complete, it includes at least following fundamental principles132:
- Beliefs and thoughts
- Morals and Ethical code
- Civil and administrative laws
Each of these principles are comes from variety of sources from various different group and people. These people come from various different backgrounds, education, believes and objectives. They have their own goals and objective, and often prejudice to their own perspectives.
When perspective, prejudices and objectives of so many different people are put together to make One complete, system then it creates a mixture that builds a confused and chaotic society. The scholars from a vast variety of beliefs and thoughts often disagree with the purpose and objective of life. In the first group, those who define these beliefs and thoughts are often the philosophers that don’t interact with various classes of people in the society. In the second group, those who define moral and ethical standards are often living in euphoric imaginary state where they completely ignore human nature (فطرة) and practical nature of harshness of life. Their standards are mere idealistic but far away from realities of life. And finally, the group that defines third type also divided on their objectives and often serve their self interests or the interest of their respective sponsors.
Whatever framework or fundamentals that are defined by these so vastly divided groups are certainly doesn’t materialized into stable long term system, rather they evolve with time and interest of present and with the passage of time the disappear in history, as the people comes later have no interest in their fundamentals and objectives.
Importantly, the fundamental or principles that they come up with is a result of their limited view, knowledge and understanding of universe, human behavior and needs. Whatever they propose as a solution is a suggestion or opinion that have never been experimented in real life, or even when it was tried then it was on smaller group of human race within a specified time in history. They are never certain that in their own belief that this is the ultimate system of fundamentals has enough strength to survive the test of time. It is merely an experiment that requires constant tuning and often results in total failure or breakdown.
Contrary to this confused system, the civilization that is build upon believing a Messenger is free of such chaos and contradictions. Firstly, all three fundamental principles come from a single source. Same source defines the beliefs and thoughts; establishes our relationship with universe; and define our objectives, goals and purpose of our life. Then the same source defines the moral and ethical standard to educate and train the humans in a specific way to fulfill those objectives. And importantly the same source defines laws to protect and facilitate the first two goals.
Obviously, such a complex unified system that flawlessly harmonizes all functions and branches can not be built by a limited human knowledge and view. It must come from a source that is above the limitation of time and understand the complex human nature and behaviors during different circumstances. And it must also understand the complexity of the environment and infrastructure that surrounds the human race.
Secondly, the principles provided by Messengers of Allah are above prejudice of race, tribe, color, language, land or any personal interest. They established them based on truth following the guidance of Creator to establish truth and justice.
Thirdly, it provides the firm foundation that can be trusted. It’s not a mere accident or experiment. It’s guidance from the Creator, who fully understands what He has created (in human) and understands the nature and behavior of His creation. It is not something that Messenger (as a human being) makes up himself based on his own personal opinion or experiment. Rather it’s a verdict from one who is higher then everyone, who is the Creator of every created being. It’s a guidance that has “no doubt in it” (لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ).
Hence, the one who follows this guidance is not in two minds. He doesn’t have any doubts or uncertainty that he is a guinea pig who is being experimented by few groups who are experimenting how to establish a civilization or law. Rather he is certain that the fundamental principles he is aligning with are from the same source as the one who created this Universe. And when this Creator can run the Universe flawlessly then He can run affairs of our lives flawlessly.
As Allah (swt) said: وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى، مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى، وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى، إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى، عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى – “53:1 By the star when it goes down, (or vanishes). 53:2 Your companion (Muhammad) has neither gone astray nor has erred.53:3 Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. 53:4 It is only an Inspiration that is inspired. 53:5 He has been taught (this Quran) by one mighty in power (Jibrael (Gabriel)).” 133
And then this civilization can not disappear as the Creator send reminders with His Messengers to all nations, time after time, until the final Messenger who completed the Deen (System). After him Allah (swt) promised that He will protect His Deen until end of times. All of these Messengers brought the same Deen, consistently and repeated reminding same fundamental principles. And the follower of such system can be fully certainly that his System (Deen) is the certainly the best and time tested.
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN MESSENGERS
★ Belief in Messengers establish that Islam is universal deen (way of life)
All the Messages that Allah (swt) sent through his various Messengers represented only one way of life that must be followed by entire mankind. And that way of life is Islam. Allah (swt) said that Islam is the only acceptable way of life for Him: إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللّهِ الإِسْلاَمُ - “3:19 Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam.” 134
Islam is not the religion or way of life exclusive only to Mohammad (pbuh), rather it is a way of life of all Prophets who came before him. It was the same Deen of Adam, Nooh, Ibrahim, Ismael, Ishaq, Yaqoob, Moosa, Eesa, Mohammad and other hundreds of thousands of Allah’s Messengers (May peace and blessing of Allah be upon all of them) . They all preached to mankind that we must submit to Allah’s command and become his obedient Abd (عبد, slave), and that we reject all Taghoot (طاغوت, rebels against the Shariah of Allah (swt)).
Islam at the time of Prophet Nooh (Noah, pbuh) meant following Shariah Laws commanded by Allah (swt) to Nooh. Islam at the time of Moosa (Moses, pbuh) meant following Shariah Laws commanded in Taurah (Torah) by Allah (swt). Islam at the time of Eesa (Jesus, pbuh) meant following the Injeel (Gospels of Jesus) as descended by Allah (swt). Similarly, Islam after arrival of Mohammad (pbuh) meant following him and Shariah Laws and Quran as descended by Allah (swt).
All of these messengers of Allah carried the message of same Moral values, ethics, manners and justice system, but their later generations stop following their guidance and fell in error by altering the commands and books of Allah. Either they changed the meanings or they hide the commands of Allah (swt) from mankind.
One of the biggest Moral standards these Messengers established is that we submit to none but Allah (swt) and we only worship Allah alone:
- Nooh (pbuh) said to his people: لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَى قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـهٍ غَيْرُهُ - “7:59 We had certainly sent Noah to his people, and he said, ‘O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him'” 135
- Ibrahim (pbuh) said to his people: وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ – “29:16 And [We sent] Abraham, when he said to his people, ‘Worship Allah and fear Him’.” 136
- Quran state that all of the Messengers of Allah (swt) stated the same: وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ - “21:25 And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.”” 137
- In fact, All Muslims from time of Adam until end of Times are One Ummah, provided they submit to Allah’s command and follow the last Messenger of their respective time, i.e. Ibrahim (pbuh) was the Messenger of his time, later Moosa (pbuh) was Messenger in his time but later Eesa (pbuh) took the mantle of Tawheed. Finally Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) was the last and final Messenger of Allah.
Allah (swt) said to that effect: إِنَّ هَذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ – “21:92 Indeed this, your religion, is one religion, and I am your Lord, so worship Me.” 138
All of these Messengers taught that we are the creation of Allah (swt) who created us from “dust” and created entire universe in various stages. They all also gave warning to disobedient and glad tiding to those who followed Allah (swt) commands:
- The Prophet Nooh (pbuh) warned his people: وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا، ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا - “71:17 And Allah has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth. 71:18 Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth), and bring you forth (again on the Day of Resurrection)?” 139
- The Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) prayed that people of Makkah believe in Day of Judgment: وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ - “2:126 And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day." He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!"” 140
- The Prophet Moosa (pbuh) warned of Hell to criminals: “20:73 "Verily! We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your (Firauns (Pharaoh)) reward, and more lasting (as regards punishment in comparison to your punishment)." 20:74 Verily! Whoever comes to his Lord as a Mujrim (criminal, polytheist, disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah and His Messengers, sinner, etc.), then surely, for him is Hell, therein he will neither die nor live. 20:75 But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer (in the Oneness of Allah, etc.), and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter),” 141
- The Scriptures of Ibrahim (pbuh) and Taurah of Moosa (pbuh) called for Tazkiya Nafs: “87:14 Indeed whosoever purifies himself (by avoiding polytheism and accepting Islamic Monotheism) shall achieve success, 87:15 And remembers (glorifies) the Name of his Lord (worships none but Allah), and prays (five compulsory prayers and Nawafil additional prayers). 87:16 Nay, you prefer the life of this world; 87:17 Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting. 87:18 Verily! This is in the former Scriptures, 87:19 The Scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Moosa (Moses)” 142
- All Messengers taught Shariah Laws to maintain Justice (عدل): لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ - “57:25 Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice.” 143
- As-Salat and Az-Zakat was common amongst the Shariah of previous Messengers: وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاء الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ - “21:73 And We made them leaders, guiding (mankind) by Our Command, and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds, performing Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and the giving of Zakat and of Us (Alone) they were worshippers. ” 144
Prophet Ismael (pbuh) people performed as-Salat and az-Zakat: وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا - “19:55 And he used to enjoin on his family and his people As-Salat (the prayers) and the Zakat, and his Lord was pleased with him” 145
Prophet Mosa (pbuh) performed as-Salat as Allah (swt) told him on Mount Tuwa: إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي – “20:14 Verily! I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I), so worship Me, and perform AsSalat (Iqamat-as-Salat) for My Remembrance.” 146
Prophet Eesa (pbuh) performed as-Salat and az-Zakat as he spoke from cradle when he was new born baby: قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا، وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا – “19:30 "He (Iesa (Jesus)) said: Verily! I am a slave of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet;" 19:31 "And He has made me blessed wheresoever I be, and has enjoined on me Salat (prayer), and Zakat, as long as I live."” 147
- As-Sawm and al-Hajj was also enjoined by Shariah of previous Messengers: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – “2:183 O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious “ 148
Similarly, Al-Hajj was also enjoined by previous Messengers as we have explained the history of Hajj last in this article.
Quran is full with such examples that all of the Messengers of Allah were calling to same way of life. This is source of great motivation and strength that we follow the Deen that is Universal. That all the previous Messengers of Allah were also teaching the same Moral and ethical values to Mankind. Alas! The followers did not pay attention.
★ Belief in Messengers inspires learning and acquiring knowledge
All of Allah’s Messengers are mountain of knowledge. They are blessed with knowledge and wisdom that Allah (swt) directly revealed to them. Allah (swt) said: وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا – “and to each [of them] We gave judgment and knowledge.” 149
This is also their main purpose and mission. They convey this knowledge and wisdom to mankind. Allah (swt) defined the mission of His Messengers: كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ - “Similarly We have sent among you a Messenger from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you the Book and wisdom and teaching you that which you did not know.” 150
Hence, believing in the Messengers of Allah means we learn from their guidance. Our Prophet (pbuh) said: طلبة العلم فريضة علي كل مسلم – “Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim”. [Discussed further later in this article]
★ Belief in Messengers emphasize on practicing good islamic morals
The Messengers of Allah bring people from darkness into light. This is the darkness of ignorance. They taught people guidance from their Lord and taught them what is beneficial for them and what is harmful for them, and that without the guidance of Allah (swt) they were living in error.
Allah (swt) said: هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ – “62:2 He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Quran, Islamic laws and Islamic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad). And verily, they had been before in manifest error;” 151
Allah (swt) also said that just having a Messenger or His Books is not the objective, but the real objective is to learn and educate from them and His books. But those who do not taken any lesson from His books and do not practice, for them Allah (swt) identified similarities to a Donkey who carries books on its back. Though a donkey carries the books on his back but it doesn’t understand anything of what he is carrying. He said: مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوْرَاةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا بِئْسَ - “62:5 The likeness of those who were entrusted with the (obligation of the) Taurat (Torah) (i.e. to obey its commandments and to practice its legal laws), but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is as the likeness of a donkey who carries huge burdens of books (but understands nothing from them)…” 152
★ Belief in Messengers reforms and purifies souls
One of the main purposes of the Messengers of Allah is to help us with Tazkiya Nafs (تزكية النفس). The education and the knowledge they transfer to us leads us to this Tazkia Nafs. Hence, it will not be incorrect if we say that the ultimate goal of sending the Messengers is to help us with Tazkia Nafs. This will be obvious end result if we follow the teaching of the Messengers of Allah.
Tazkia Nafs calls for total reform of our life to align it with Islamic Moral and Ethical Standards based on the Islamic Shariah and fundamentals defined by Allah (swt), our Creator.
The verse (Al-Baqarah 2:151) mention above is also explaining that our Tazkia Nafs is the goal for the Messengers. They teach us the Shariah and knowledge of Allah’s Deen (System), and when we follow and obey the Deen of Allah then we lead our self to this Tazkia Nafs: يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ – “reciting to them His Verses and purifying them”153.
It is also teaching us the realities of life and creation. It teaches us that we must not transgress beyond our bounds and we must recognize the rights of our Creator and His creations and fellow human beings. Pharaoh transgressed all bounds and unleashed his oppression and injustice over people. In additional to that Pharaoh also declared himself as god. When he crossed all limits then Allah (swt) sent His Messenger Mosa (Moses pbuh) to Pharaoh. He (swt) told Mosa (pbuh) that Pharaoh has rebelled and asked him to warn Pharaoh and invite him to Tazkiya Nafs (تزكية النفس). Allah (swt) mentioned this in Quran: اذْهَبْ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى، فَقُلْ هَلْ لَكَ إِلَى أَنْ تَزَكَّى، وَأَهْدِيَكَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَتَخْشَى - “79:17 Go to Firaun (Pharaoh), verily, he has transgressed all bounds (in crimes, sins, polytheism, disbelief, etc.). 79:18 And say to him: "Would you purify yourself (from the sin of disbelief by becoming a believer)", 79:19 And that I guide you to your Lord, so you should fear Him?” 154
Then Allah (swt) also said that our success factor in Judgment Day really depends on Tazkia Nafs. Allah (swt) said: قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّـهَا- وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّـهَا – “91:9 He has succeeded who purifies it, 91:10 And he has failed who instills it [with corruption].” 155
Hence, believing in Messenger also means bringing complete reforms in life and purifying inner self in obedience to the commands of the Creator.
★ Belief in Messengers provides an ideal personality to follow
All Messengers of Allah attained high level of moral and ethics and were perfect in their manners. They were the leaders of all mankind. They were from descendent from most noble lineage. All of the Messengers of Allah were decedents of Nooh (Noah) and Ibrahim (Abraham).
Allah (swt) confirmed that in Quran: وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَابَ – “57:26 And indeed, We sent Nooh (Noah) and Ibrahim (Abraham), and placed in their offspring Prophet-hood and Scripture”156 .
They were the most brilliant and intelligent amongst their people. They were very eloquent in their speeches and had strong intuition. They were trustworthy and honest. They debated with ignorant of their time defeated them, like Ibrahim debated with a disbeliever (Quran 2:258) or Moses debated with Pharaoh (Quran 26:23-29).
Besides, these Messengers received their knowledge directly from Allah (swt), and in light of this knowledge they can distinguish between wrong and right. These Messengers do not make their conclusion based on their own opinions rather they get the guidance of Allah (swt) to make these conclusions. Hence, their teachings and guidance is unambiguous as it is based on concrete unchangeable knowledge that comes from the Creator.
That is why Quran repeatedly ask people to follow the Messengers of Allah and be obedience and sincere to Messengers of Allah. Allah (swt) strongly commanded in Quran to follow the Messenger:
- وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ – “4:64 And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah.” 157
- مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ – “4:80 He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah” 158
- قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ – “3:31 Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."” 159
- ا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ، وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ، إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابَّ عِندَ اللّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ – “8:20 O you who have believed, obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn from him while you hear [his order]. 8:21 And do not be like those who say, "We have heard," while they do not hear. 8:22 Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are the deaf and dumb who do not use reason.” 160
Quran states in many verses to follow the Messenger because they are the best of mankind and they are best in knowledge and wisdom, and they receive guidance from Allah. Hence, Allah (swt) said that Messenger of Allah is the best person to be followed:
لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا
33:21 There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often. 161
This clearly identifies the role of Messenger that He is an example for all of us. Allah (swt) could’ve sent Quran via His angles but instead He sent it through His Messengers. These Messengers not only taught us the guidance from Allah but they lived it themselves. They lived amongst us with their families, they performed business and activities, they married and they had children. Hence, they did all activities that other humans have to practically deal in their lives. The lives of these Messengers showed us that we as human can practically live the Deen of Allah and achieve the high status of righteousness and honesty.
Belief in His Books
Belief in His Books includes the Books that were revealed to all Messengers of Allah, including Quran. Allah (swt) said: قُولُواْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ – “2:136 Say, [O believers], "We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him."” 162
Believing in all Books of Prior Messengers of Allah is core belief of Muslims without which he is not considered in fold of Islam. Allah (swt) said: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ آمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللّهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا – “4:136 O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray.” 163
Quran confirms all the books that were revealed to the Messengers before Prophet Mohammad (pbuh): نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ، مِن قَبْلُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَنزَلَ الْفُرْقَانَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انتِقَامٍ – “3:3 It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Quran) to you (Muhammad) with truth, confirming what came before it. And he sent down the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel). 3:4 Aforetime, as guidance to mankind, And He sent down the criterion (of judgement between right and wrong (this Quran)). Truly, those who disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah, for them there is a severe torment; and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Able of Retribution.” 164
In Quran, Allah (swt) has mentioned Books of following Messengers:
- صحف أبراهيم - Suhuf of Ibrahim (pbuh),
Allah (swt) said: صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى – “87:19 The Scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Moosa (Moses)” 165
- تورات – Taurat (Torah) of Mosa (pbuh)
Allah (swt) said: إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُواْ مِن كِتَابِ اللّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاء فَلاَ تَخْشَوُاْ النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ – “5:44 Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers.”166
- زبور - Zaboor of Dawood (pbuh)
Allah (swt) said: وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ – “21:105 And indeed We have written in Zaboor (Psalms) (i.e. all the revealed Holy Books the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), the Quran) after (We have already written in) Al-Lauh Al-Mahfooz (the Book, that is in the heaven with Allah), that My righteous slaves shall inherit the land (i.e. the land of Paradise). ”], and said: وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا – “4:163 … and to Dawood (David) We gave the Zaboor (Psalms).” 167
- أنجيل – Injeel (Gospel) of Esa (pbuh)
Allah (swt) said in Quran: وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آثَارِهِم بِعَيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ، وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الإِنجِيلِ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فِيهِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ – “5:46 And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous. 5:47 And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient.” 168
- قرآن - Quran of Mohammad (pbuh)
Allah (swt) said: وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ – “5:48 And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth…” 169
Allah (swt) mentioned in Quran that He gave Shariah to each of the Messenger so that their Ummah can follow these Shariah to righteous path. He said: لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ – “4:58 … To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ” 170
Hence, any person who rejects Ayats (proofs, evidences, verses, revelations etc) of Allah (swt) is considered a disbeliever. Allah (swt) said: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا وَاسْتَكْبَرُواْ عَنْهَا لاَ تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاء وَلاَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّى يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ وَكَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُجْرِمِينَ – “7:40 Indeed, those who deny Our verses and are arrogant toward them – the gates of Heaven will not be opened for them, nor will they enter Paradise until a camel enters into the eye of a needle. And thus do We recompense the criminals.” 171
Purpose of Books of Allah
The purpose of these Books of Allah (swt) was to provide clear and concise direction for people as to how they should live their lives. It provided them their purpose of creation, their objectives and goals on earth. It gave them principles with which they drive their ethical and moral values. It gave them laws that they can use to resolve their disputes and administer various aspect of their governance.
Allah (swt) said: كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ – “2:213 Mankind were one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allah by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allah guides whom He wills to a Straight Path.” 172
Contrary to the claim of few that human race started life in ignorance and polytheism, Quran proclaims that human race started their live with clear guidance from Allah (swt). And Allah (swt) sends them His Messengers and Prophets (starting from Adam) who guided them to righteous path. But later people deviated from the right path and differed from each other. These differences created arguments and bloodshed. Hence, Allah (swt) send His Books for guidance so that people can extract laws from it and resolve their differences mutually.
Naskh (ناسخ) or Mansookh (منسوخ): Muslims believe that each subsequent law abrogated the law that came before it, in whole or in part. For example, in the beginning Allah (swt) permited Adam (pbuh) to marry his daughters to his sons, then this was abrogated. At the time of Prophet Yaqoob (pbuh) it was allowed for one man to marry two sisters, however, this law was abrogated173.
Similarly, Injeel (Gospel) permitted what was forbidden by Torah. Quran mentions: وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَلِأُحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَجِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ – “3:50 And [I have come] confirming what was before me of the Torah and to make lawful for you some of what was forbidden to you. And I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear Allah and obey me.”174
Quran also abrogated the Shariah of earlier books and things that were prohibited on Children of Israel: الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَآئِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالأَغْلاَلَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُواْ النُّورَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ– “7:157 Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e.Muhammad) whom they find written with them in the Taurat (Torah) (Deut, xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16), - he commands them for Al-Maroof (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Taiyibat ((i.e. all good and lawful) as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khabaith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allahs Covenant), and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. So those who believe in him (Muhammad), honour him, help him, and follow the light (the Quran) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.” 175
With respect to Naskh Allah (swt) replied to the doubts created by jews: مَا نَنْسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنْسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا - “2:106 We do not abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it. This was in response to a doubt which the Jews tried to implant that If both the earlier Scriptures and the Qur'an were revelations from God then why that the injunctions found in the earlier Scriptures had been replaced by new ones in the Qur'an?. But Allah (swt) replied that do you not know that Allah is absolute sovereign and He has ultimate authority to abrogate previous injunctions and cause people to forget them, but He replaces them with something equally or more beneficial.176
This concept is called Naskh (ناسخ) or Mansookh (منسوخ) in Shariah. It means repeal and replacement of Devine Laws. It should be noted that naskh only occurs to divine commands and prohibitions, i.e. matter relating to Furu-ud-deen (فروع الدين). Naskh cannot occur to statements of fact or Tahweed or Asl-ud-deen (أصل الدين).
Allah (swt) said: إِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَّكَانَ آيَةٍ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُفْتَرٍ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ – “16:101 And when We substitute a verse in place of a verse – and Allah is most knowing of what He sends down – they say, "You, [O Muhammad], are but an inventor [of lies]." But most of them do not know.” 177
In Islamic Shariah, Naskh can be of four types:
- Naskh of Quran by Quran,
- Naskh of Quran by Sunnah,
- Naskh of Sunnah by Quran,
- Nashkh of Sunnah by Sunnah
When the divine law is repealed, it was replaced by another law or not replaced at all 178. e.g.
- Naskh without replacement: Giving charity before talking to Messenger in private: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَاجَيْتُمُ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَةً - “58:12 you who have believed, when you [wish to] privately consult the Messenger, present before your consultation a charity”, was repealed by: أَأَشْفَقْتُمْ أَن تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَاتٍ فَإِذْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَتَابَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ - “58:13 Have you feared to present before your consultation charities? Then when you do not and Allah has forgiven you,”
- Naskh by an easier law: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ - “2:183 O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you..”. This was replaced by: أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ- “2:187 It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations].
- Naskh by a similar law: as in the case of changing direction of Qibla to Masjid ul Haram in Makkah. (Al-Baqara 2:144)
The core and the root of Deen (Islam) has always been the same amongst all Prophets, even though their Shariats (فروع الدين) were different. That’s why the Prophet (ﷺ) has said that all prophets have same Deen and they are like brothers. Hence, they all said that there is no Illah but Allah and they submitted to Allah alone. In every era they prayed according to how Allah (swt) asked them at the time, but the Deen itself remained the same
The difference of Shariats (between various Prophets: Moses, Jesus, Mohammad etc.) can be understood similar to Naskh (ناسخ) or Mansookh (منسوخ) in Islamic Shariat. For instance, at one time Muslim prayed facing towards Baitul Muqdas in Palestine, however, it was later changed to Baitul Haram in Makkah. Similarly, Allah (swt) made Saturday for day of worship for Bani Isreal, however, changed it to Friday for Mohammad (ﷺ).
But the core principle of Deen remained same. Allah (swt) never asked to worship to anyone else (or submit to other laws than Allah’s): 179
شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّى بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاء وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ
42:13 He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus – to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate others with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back [to Him].180
Belief in Quran
The relationship between Book of Allah and Messenger is of “Guide” and “Guidance”.
Quran is true guidance
- Quran is truth and clear guidance from Allah (swt): Allah (swt) said: الَرَ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ وَقُرْآنٍ مُّبِينٍ – "Alif, Lam, Ra. These are the verses of the Book and a clear Qur'an. [15:1]" 181
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ – "The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong) [2:185]"182
Allah (swt) called Quran glorious and full of wisdom: وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ – “36:2 By the Quran, full of wisdom (i.e. full of laws, evidences, and proofs),” , وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ – "By the Glorious Quran. [50:1]", and إِنَّهُ لَقُرْآنٌ كَرِيمٌ – "That (this) is indeed an honourable recital (the Noble Quran). [56:77]"185
وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ – "And We have indeed made the Quran easy to understand and remember, then is there any that will remember (or receive admonition)? [14:17]"186
- Quran provide guidance to only those who wishes guidance of Allah: Allah (swt) said: إِنَّ هَـذَا الْقُرْآنَ يِهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَبِيرًا – "Verily, this Quran guides to that which is most just and right and gives glad tidings to the believers (in the Oneness of Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad, etc.). who work deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a great reward (Paradise). [17:9]"187
Allah (swt) also warn the disbelievers to take heed and warning from Quran: وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَـذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِيَذَّكَّرُواْ وَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلاَّ نُفُورًا – "And surely, We have explained (Our Promises, Warnings and (set forth many) examples) in this Quran that they (the disbelievers) may take heed, but it increases them in naught save aversion [17:41]" 188
However, for Allah’s enemies and wretches it provide no clues: وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا وَإِذَا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَهُ وَلَّوْاْ عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِمْ نُفُورًا – "And We have put coverings over their hearts lest, they should understand it (the Quran), and in their ears deafness. And when you make mention of your Lord Alone (La ilaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) Islamic Monotheism ()) in the Quran, they turn on their backs, fleeing in extreme dislikeness. [17:46]"189
Allah (swt) said that Quran will provide guidance to believers and for unjust wretched people it will only cause them loss: وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاء وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الظَّالِمِينَ إَلاَّ خَسَارًا – "And We send down from the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism and act on it), and it increases the Zalimoon (polytheists and wrong-doers) nothing but loss.[17:82]"190
- Nothing else in opposition to Quran should be followed: Allah (swt) said that we must only follow Quran and anything that is in opposition to Quran must be rejected: اتَّبِعُواْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاء – "Follow, [O mankind], what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any allies…[7:3]" 191
Protection of Quran and Deen-ul-Islam
Belief in Quran is that it is a Book of Allah (swt) and there is no doubt in it. Quran is a Book that is guidance to entire mankind till the end of times, and people will not follow and trust the book until Allah (swt) provides assurance and certainty that this is true book from Allah and none can alter it. Allah (swt) made this promise that He (swt) will protect this Book of guidance. People will continue to receive the true Message of Quran, and if they are willing to they will find it easily.
- The source of this book is only and only Allah (swt): Allah (swt) said: وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ – "And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], …[5:48]" , and
He (swt) said that this book is guidance that has “no doubt in it”: ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ – “ This is the Book (the Quran), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqoon (the pious and righteous persons) [2:2]” ,
That Quran is an absolute truth: وَإِنَّهُ لَحَقُّ الْيَقِينِ - “ And Verily, it (this Quran) is an absolute truth with certainty [69:51]”
And that if it’s not from the Mighty Allah (swt) with all-encompassing knowledge then it will have contractions in it: أَفَلاَ يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللّهِ لَوَجَدُواْ فِيهِ اخْتِلاَفًا كَثِيرًا – “ Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much contradiction.[4:82]”
And none other than Allah (swt) can reveal such a mighty Book: وَمَا كَانَ هَـذَا الْقُرْآنُ أَن يُفْتَرَى مِن دُونِ اللّهِ وَلَـكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ – “ And this Quran is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it (i.e. the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.), and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for mankind) - wherein there is no doubt from the the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinns,and all that exists). [10:37]”
The whole creation with all of their collective efforts cannot produce a book like Quran: قُل لَّئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَن يَأْتُواْ بِمِثْلِ هَـذَا الْقُرْآنِ لاَ يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا – “ Say: "If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another."[17:88]”
- None can change it, nor can they add to it: This right is not given to anyone to alter the words of Quran, even the Messenger of Allah (swt) cannot alter its words: وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَـذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاء نَفْسِي إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلاَّ مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ – “ And when Our Clear Verses are recited unto them, those who hope not for their meeting with Us, say: Bring us a Quran other than this, or change it."Say (O Muhammad): "It is not for me to change it on my own accord; I only follow that which is revealed unto me. Verily, I fear if I were to disobey my Lord, the torment of the Great Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)." [10:15]”
- Quran is protected from evil and Satan: Allah (swt) descended Quran through His noble and powerful angles. None can overpower them and no falsehood can be added to Quran : لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ – “ Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah) [41:42]”
And Allah (swt) said that Satan can’t get anywhere near them nor do they have capability to produce a verse like it: وَمَا تَنَزَّلَتْ بِهِ الشَّيَاطِينُ، وَمَا يَنبَغِي لَهُمْ وَمَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ، إِنَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّمْعِ لَمَعْزُولُونَ - “ And it is not the Shayatin (devils) who have brought it (this Quran) down, Neither would it suit them, nor they can (produce it). Verily, they have been removed far from hearing it. [26:210-212]”
- Neither it can disappear nor can it be destroyed: Allah (swt) made a promise that He himself will protect it: إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ – “Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Quran) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption). [15:9]”
Allah (swt) said that He will ensure that Quran is collected and recited, and it remain unambiguous and clear: إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ، فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ، ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ – “It is for Us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad) the ability to recite it (the Quran), And when We have recited it to you (O Muhammad through Jibrael (Gabriel)), then follow you its (the Qurans) recital. Then it is for Us (Allah) to make it clear to you, [75:17-19]”
Throughout the history no one ever disputed that claim. Quran remained completely protected and no one added even a single word to it, nor altered it. The reason for that is that there are so many Muslims who memorized Quran by heart, and a small minor change in its words will be disputed by millions of people. Hence, Allah (swt) said: سَنُقْرِؤُكَ فَلَا تَنسَى - “ We shall make you to recite (the Quran), so you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) shall not forget (it),[87:6]”
- Both words of Quran and its meaning and understanding are protected: When Allah (swt) made the promise to protect Quran, He meant Quran, its meanings and understanding all-together, because just protecting words of Quran doesn’t mean that people will still have clear and unambiguous understanding of Quran. Since Quran is a Book of guidance for people until end of times; hence for them to take guidance from it, this guidance must be protected.
Besides protecting the words of Quran, Allah (swt) preserved its teaching and guidance through protecting two other things:
Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ): Everything that Prophet said, he did, he acted etc is all recorded in vivid details. No other person in entire history was ever recorded in such great details. The Prophet (ﷺ) explained us the Quran and details injunctions of our Deen and how to practice it. Allah (swt) ensured that all such detailed are preserved and protected for all people to come till end of time.
Language of Quran: Quran was revealed in Arabic language. Today there are millions of people who speak Arabic language and understand it clearly, unlike Books of other religion whose language has almost but disappeared. But Arabic language is still alive and will remain alive.
Quran invites other nations to accept Islam
Quran invites people of other nations who were given Books and Prophets to accept Islam. In essence their accepting Islam is only a revival of their religion, as all prophets who came before were Muslims and were servants of Allah (swt). Islam is only asking them to revert to the religion of their Prophets. This is why Quran often ask the Ahl-Kitab (people of Book) to return to Islam:
Islam is not a new Deen. It’s the same Deen that was accepted by Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh).
مِّلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمينَ مِن قَبْلُ وَفِي هَذَا
22:78 …Therefore, be steadfast in the religion of your father Abraham. Allah had called you "Muslims" before this and has called you (by the same name) in this (Qur'an) …
Hence, Allah (swt) is only asking Ahl-Kitab to return to original Deen: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ آمِنُواْ بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم – “ O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed (to Muhammad) confirming what is (already) with you....[4:47]” 204
It is very natural for people of Book to admit to Islam for following reasons:
- Islam is the same religion that all other Messenger and Prophets believed and practice, and Quran is only the revival of Islam.
- The teachings of previous Books and Prophets has either long disappeared or they have been altered to such a degree that the original religion is no more recognizable
- The language the previous books were revealed have also disappeared in history.
- The original scripts of previous books are not available to mankind. In fact, Quran is the only book of Allah whose original text is preserved letter by letter.
- All previous Books and Messenger came to specific nation but Quran came to entire mankind until end of times.
- Quran not only provide historical account of various Messengers but it also confirms their teaching and Books. However, it also states that the original teaching of those books were altered and hidden by few who controlled affairs of their nation. Thus, Quran revives the original teaching and invites them to accept the truth.
These are the reason that Quran invites them to accept the guidance: يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ قَدْ جَاءكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ، يَهْدِي بِهِ اللّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلاَمِ وَيُخْرِجُهُم مِّنِ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ – “ O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. Indeed, there has come to you from Allah a light (Prophet Muhammad) and a plain Book (this Quran). 5:16 Wherewith Allah guides all those who seek His Good Pleasure to ways of peace, and He brings them out of darkness by His Will unto light and guides them to a Straight Way (Islamic Monotheism). [5:15]” 205
يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ عَلَى فَتْرَةٍ مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا جَاءنَا مِن بَشِيرٍ وَلاَ نَذِيرٍ فَقَدْ جَاءكُم بَشِيرٌ وَنَذِيرٌ وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ – “ O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad) making (things) clear unto you, after a break in (the series of) Messengers, lest you say: "There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner." But now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And Allah is Able to do all things. [5:19]” 206
قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ حَتَّىَ تُقِيمُواْ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا فَلاَ تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ – “ Say (O Muhammad) "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing (as regards guidance) till you act according to the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), and what has (now) been sent down to you from your Lord (the Quran)." Verily, that which has been sent down to you (Muhammad) from your Lord increases in many of them their obstinate rebellion and disbelief. So be not sorrowful over the people who disbelieve. [5:68]” 207
Quran is the constitution of an Islamic country
Allah (swt) declared Quran as constitution of Islamic country. It provides detailed framework and a way of life following which mankind can find eternal success. Allah (swt) said explaining this: وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَـذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلاَّ كُفُورًا – “ And indeed We have fully explained to mankind, in this Quran, every kind of similitude, but most mankind refuse (the truth and accept nothing) but disbelief [17:89]” 208
However, some people refuse to accept Quran as the Book of Guidance in all spheres of life: وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ وَكَانَ الْإِنسَانُ أَكْثَرَ شَيْءٍ جَدَلًا – “ And indeed We have put forth every kind of example in this Quran, for mankind. But, man is ever more quarrelsome than anything [18:54]” 209
Allah (swt) stated in Quran:
إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ أَمَرَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
12:40 The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.
Allah (swt) declared himself as ultimate Hakim الحاكم . He is the supreme Legislator. All commands, judgement or legislation belongs to Allah (swt). Through Quran Allah (swt) has legislated the Law of Islamic State.
- أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَحْكَمِ الْحَاكِمِينَ - "Is not Allah the most just of judges? [95:8]"
- Allah says: أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ - “Then is it the judgment of [the time of] ignorance they desire? But who is better than Allah in judgment for a people who are certain [in faith] [5:50]”.
Allah (swt) has declared that No human is Abd (slave) of other human, i.e. No human has absolute authority over other human. This is the very essence of descending Quran is to free human from other humans, instead Justice is defined by Allah (swt), The Creator of All beings, and this justice is equally applied to all.
The very essence of “La Illah illa allah…” is that Allah (swt) is “The Illah”. And Allah (swt) is the only one who defines the Law and Judgment. Those who seek to define the Law and Judgment parallel to the Laws of Allah or in contradiction to Allah’s law are in essence claiming Uloohiyah with Allah (swt), or seeking partnership with Allah (swt) as “Illah”. This is indeed a major Kufr and Shirk.
Those who claim that right are called “Taghoot” (الطاغوت) as the origin of the word “Toghian” (طغيان) in Arabic means exceeding the limit. Taghoot is any and every body or individual who claims the right of Uloohiyah with Allah. Please see our discussion on Taghoot earlier.
Thus, no human has right to forbid anything on other human except that Allah (swt) forbids it on His creation Himself, nor they have right to permit anything on other humans if the Creator Himself prohibited it.
وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَـذَا حَلاَلٌ وَهَـذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفْتَرُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ
16:116 And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, "This is lawful and this is unlawful," to
Thus, Allah (swt) asked us to follow his Shariah in every aspect of life, as He (swt) said: ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَى شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاء الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ - “Then we have put you (O)Muhammad on an evident way of our commandment, so follow that and do not follow the desires of those who does not know [45:18]”.
And he ask us to not make any partners to Allah in Legislating Deen, as He (swt) said: إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ - “The decision is only for Allah. He relates the truth, and He is the best of deciders [6:57]”. And said: وَلَا يُشْرِكُ فِي حُكْمِهِ أَحَدًا “…And he makes none to share in His Decision and His Rule. [18:26]”
Thus, those who deny the Allah’s revelations from being the Constitution of Islamic States, Allah (swt) addressed them in Quran:
- Allah (swt) said: وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ – “ … And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. [5:44]”
- Allah (swt) said: وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ – “ And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the wrongdoers 5:45]”
- Allah (swt) said: وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ – “… And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient.[5:47]”
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN QURAN
★ Belief in Quran teaches to seek truth and guidance
Quran is a book of guidance for mankind. It starts with the verse, ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ – “This is the Book (the Quran), whereof there is no doubt in it, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allah] [2:2].”
From the very onset, Quran establishes the virtues of truth, and seeking truthful guidance. Being truthful is one of the necessities of social behaviour to establish good communities. Lying and dishonesty generates corruption and destroys social structures and relations. Hence, Quran gives clear instructions to be truthful, and forbade lying:
- يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ وَكُونُوا مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ - O you who believe! Be afraid of Allah, and be with those who are true (in words and deeds). [9:119]
- يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا - O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and (always) speak the truth. [33:70]
Similarly, Quran forbade lying and deceiption. One of the worst lie is to invest falsehold in the name of religion and attribute it to Allah. Quran speak strongly against inventing falsehood, especially in the name of religion, it says,
- وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّـهِ كَذِبًا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ وَيَقُولُ الْأَشْهَادُ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ أَلَا لَعْنَةُ اللَّـهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ - And who is more unjust than he who invents a lie about Allah? Those will be presented before their Lord, and the witnesses will say, "These are the ones who lied against their Lord." Unquestionably, the curse of Allah is upon the wrongdoers. [11:18]
And Quran emphasizes that one of the key attributes of a believer is that he is trustworthy. وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ – “Those who are faithfully true to their Amanat (all the duties which Allah has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts etc.) and to their covenants; [23:8]”.
Further, Quran teaches to seek truthful guidance,
- قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُم بِوَكِيلٍ - Say: "O you mankind! Now truth (i.e. the Quran and Prophet Muhammad), has come to you from your Lord. So whosoever receives guidance, he does so for the good of his own self, and whosoever goes astray, he does so to his own loss, and I am not (set) over you as a Wakil (disposer of affairs to oblige you for guidance). [10:108]”.
- قَدْ جَاءَكُم بَصَائِرُ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِيَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۚ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُم بِحَفِيظٍ - “Verily, proofs have come to you from your Lord, so whosoever sees, will do so for (the good of) his ownself, and whosoever blinds himself, will do so to his own harm, and I (Muhammad) am not a watcher over you. [6:104].”
Hence, it teaches that a person must strive to seek truthrul guidances, and when the truth becomes clear from falsehood, one must side with it, and receive guidance through it.
★ Belief in Quran reminds us about purpose of our existence
A clear objective establishes a hope and purpose for life. An aimless life, without any purpose and motive will create despair, depression and sluggish nature. Quran is a constant reminder that our existence is due to Allah, and He created us with a purpose. And while our stay in this world is temporary, we are asked by Allah (swt) to achieve certain objectives in this life, to be successful in next life.
We are merely a vicegerent of Allah (swt) on Earth. Everything in universe belongs to Allah (swt), and Allah alone. We are not the real owner of our possession, rather Allah (swt) is the real owner, and he trusted us with worldly possessions, that we may exercise His commands in disbursing it justly to all His creation. Allah (swt) has granted us this lease of life to test us through the earthly trials, and see who will behave justly per His commands, and who will disobey. And on Day of Judgment each human will be judged and held accountable. And Allah (swt) will not only judge human for how he utilized things that Allah entrusted with him, but also all public dealing and social conduct.
★ Other impacts,
- Belief in Quran teaches universal brotherhood and humanity
- Belief in Quran calls to ponder upon creation of universe
- Belief in Quran teaches to investigate and reason
- Belief in Quran teaches to reject ignorance
- Belief in Quran teaches to establish justice. Justice must be served, even when its against oneself. As Allah (swt) said: ا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّـهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّـهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَن تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا - O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a Better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you may avoid justice, and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do. [4:135]
- Belief in Quran provides universal moral values
- Belief in Quran teaches unity
- Belief in Quran teaches to stand with oppressed
- Belief in Quran teaches constant struggle and perseverance
Belief in Qadar of Allah
Although belief in Qadar is part of Belief of Allah, but Allah (swt) has mentioned it exclusively to emphasize its importance. Belief in al-Qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith. Since its one of the area of Belief where people often make mistake, we will explain it in detail.
What is meant by al-Qadar is that Allah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that they will happen at times that are known to Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and they happen according to what He wrote decreed and wrote on the Preserved Tablet.
And indeed we believed in al-Qadar both “Good” and “Bad” and we do not question the Logic of Allah (swt). Allah (swt) said:
The word Qad’r قَدْر means quantity, proportional, measure, e.g. بِقَدْر in proportion, equal to. It comes from root Qadara قَدَرَ which is usually referred to as divine decree, judgment, ultimate destiny.
- If the word is used as Qadira قَدِرَ, then it means اِسْتَطَاعَ be capable or have or posses the ability or power (to),
- If it is used as قَدَّرَ then it means (i) to estimate, evaluate, (ii) to consider, to judge, (iii) تَوَقَّعَ: to expect, to anticipate, foresee (iv) to enable, put in position, make possible
- When it is used as قَدَّرَ الله ُthen it means Qada قـَضَى i.e. to impose, to order, decree (as in Qada wa Qadar بِقَضَاءٍ و قَدَر ) refers to predetermine, predestine, Devine decree (further details below). The214وَقُضِيَ الأَمْرُ meaning the die is cast, it’s all over. The word قَضَاء means the judicial authority, and the word قَضَاء القَاضى means the order of judge.
The word Qadar قَدَر is also used as fate, destiny, predestination and the word Taqdeer تقدير means estimation, evaluation215. People often use word Taqdeer to refer to what is written in the Preserved Tablet as fate or ultimate destiny.
Allah (swt) is the Al-Qadir (القادر) because He has the absolute and irresistible power Al-Qadar (القَدَر), and that He overcomes every other power - إِنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ – “Indeed, Allah has power over all things”, and He (swt) is the Al-Muqtadir (المقتدر) Sovereign Omnipotent or Mighty King because He is able to do everything. Hence, Al-Qadir (القادر) The Capable, Al-Qadeer (القَدِير) All-Capable, Al-Qadir, and Al-Muqtadir (المقتدر) The All-Capable are Allah (swt)’s Devine Attributes that all refers to Al-Qada’a wal Qadar.
Also, Allah (swt) said that he created everything with Qadar: وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا [25:2], and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.” 216
This is pointing to the fact that the entire universe is created with a balance and justice. And they are working in accordance with Allah (swt)’s precisely defined scheme. Everything occurs on its appointed time and with certain discipline. The creation of this Universe is a marvel of ingenuity, and whoever invests time in observing the harmony of objects in this universe is at least astonished at the perfection of its sensitive balance.
“Allah has not only created everything in the universe but also determined its shape, size, potentialities, characteristics, term of existence, the limitations and extent of its development and all other things concerning it. Then, He has created the means and provisions to enable it to function properly in its own separate sphere. This is one of the most comprehensive verses of the Qur'an with regard to the Doctrine of Tawheed. According to Traditions, the Holy Prophet himself taught this verse to every child of his family as soon as it was able to speak and utter a few words, and every Muslim should use it for educating his children.” 217.
Further to creation, their sustenance and survival also depends on the calculated schemes. Allah (swt) said: سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبّكَ الاَعْلَى- الَّذِى خَلَقَ فَسَوَّى- وَالَّذِى قَدَّرَ فَهَدَى [87:1-3] - Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High. Who has created, and then proportioned it. And Who has measured; and then guided.” 218
The word Fassawa (فَسَوَّى) means proportionate. That He created everything, from the earth to the heavens, in the universe, and gave whatever he created the right proportion and balance and gave every creature the best conceivable form and shape.
The word Fahada فَهَدَى means “That is, nothing was just created and left to itself, but whatever was created to perform a certain function, it was also taught the method of performing that function. In other words, He is not merely the Creator but Guide too. He has taken the responsibility to give guidance to whatever He has created in a particular capacity to fit its nature and to guide it in the way suitable for it” 219.
Thus, we can understand Al-Qadar of Allah (swt) in following way:
- Allah (swt) has eternal knowledge, and He estimated the entire creation process prior to creating it, and recorded it in the Preserved Tablet in precise details. As He (swt) said: أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ – “22:70 Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is [all] in the Book [al-Lawh al-Mahfooz]. Verify that is easy for Allah.” 220
Hence, the entire creation that exists and its evolution is based on Allah (swt)’s prior estimation and in accordance with what He wrote in the Preserved Tablet.
- The universe and all the creation within or outside of it, was created by Allah with His absolute power and with precision (Al-Qadar). And Allah (swt) determined the nature of all things and created them with perfection. As Allah (swt) said: الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ - “32:7 Who perfected everything which He created” 221 . The entire universe is bound with an Ecosystem that maintains the balance in universe.
The continuity and survival of the creation is based on the precise balance established by Allah (swt). If this balance is interrupted, this will bring disaster to the universe, and will result in end of existence. But because of absolute power and control of Allah (over all things), that He Commands and Order them to stay on course.
This has been elaborated in many places in Quran. For instance, the Sun and Moon are orbiting in their circles. وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ - “36:38 And the sun runs [on course] toward its stopping point. That is the (Qadar) determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.”222
Here Allah (swt) mentioned that the Sun and moon are orbiting in circles based on His precise determination aka Taqdeer (تَقْدِيرُ).
Similarly, the moon changes it phases with precise determination of Allah (swt): وَالْقَمَرَ قَدَّرْنَاهُ مَنَازِلَ حَتَّى عَادَ كَالْعُرْجُونِ الْقَدِيمِ - “36:39 And the moon – We have determined for it phases, until it returns [appearing] like the old date stalk” 223
- And that all of our actions (and of entire creation) are always already in Allah (swt)’s knowledge: وَلَـكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ اللّهُ أَمْراً كَانَ مَفْعُولاً - “8:42 … but [you met] that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained [in His Knowledge].” 224
And that none of our actions can be executed except that Allah (swt) allows them to happen: وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ - “81:29 And you do not will except that Allah wills – Lord of the worlds” 225. وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَرًا مَّقْدُورًا – “33:38 … and the command of Allah is the a degree determined.” 226
What is al-Qada’a and Al-Qadar?
Al-Qadar is “the divine will and decree of Allah (swt)”, where He “knew”, “wrote”, “willed” and “created” all things in due proportion and according to a precise measure. Allah (swt) knew about everything before bringing them to existence and in accordance with proportions and measures which Allah had written in a Book called al-Lawh al-Mahfooz لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ (the Preserved Tablet).
Al-Qada’a is the perfectly precise execution and accomplishment of all things in accordance with Allah’s Qadar. As in وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً – “when He decrees a thing”227. Or in وَكَانَ أَمْرًا مَّقْضِيًّا - “And it is a matter [already] decreed”228. Or in وَقُضِيَ الأَمْرُ - “and the matter is [then] decided?”229.
The relationship between Qada’a and Qadar is that Qadar is the Book of all orders in which Allah (swt) prior to creation recorded all events and objects that were to be created with exact and precise estimation, whilst Qada’a is the perfect execution of this decree at its appointed time. “Qada’a refers to the time when things are brought into existence. So Qadar means the decree and Qada’a means the implementation of that decree”. 230
What is al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (The Preserved Tablet) لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ:
Allah (swt) wrote in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) the fate of all creations. Allah (swt) said:
The declaration of Allah (swt) about al-Lawh al-Mahfooz and that He wrote (in advance) everything that exists and all events that will occur, and that He (swt) wrote it before He created us, is the sign of completeness of his Lordship (Raboobiyah) and comprehensive-ness of His (swt) knowledge.
Abd-Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas said The Messenger said:
إِنَّ اللهَ قَدَّرَ مَقَادِيرَ الْخَلَائِقِ قَبْلَ خَلْقِ السَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ، وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْمَاء
“Allah issued His decrees concerning the measurement and due proportion of the creatures fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, and His Throne was over the water” – [Sahih Al-Muslim] 232
Thus, Allah is demonstrating us the power and comprehensiveness of His knowledge by illustrating in various verses of Qur’an that He (swt) is all-knowing about futuristic events before even He created them. And He (swt) emphasized it and followed it up by saying that it is indeed “easy” for Him (إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ). Thus, he put a period to all questions and ambiguities around al-Qadar by stating that it is very easy for Him (swt).
What is meant in إِنَّ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ is that:
In the Sunan, reported from a group of the Companions that the Messenger of Allah said:/p>
أَوَّلُ مَا خَلَقَ اللهُ الْقَلَمُ، قَالَ لَهُ: اكْتُبْ، قَالَ: وَ مَا أَكْتُبُ؟ قَالَ: اكْتُبْ مَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ، فَجَرَى الْقَلَمُ بِمَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة
“The first thing that Allah created was the Pen (al-qalam القلم). He said to it, "Write!'' It said, "What should I write'' He said, "Write what will happen,'' so the Pen wrote everything that will happen until the Day of Resurrection”. – [Tafir Ibn Khatir]233 .
And Allah (swt) said: وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ - [6:59] And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record” . Clear record is referring to the Preserved Tablet.234
Similarly, any events that happens in universe and what we witness is all known to Allah (swt) in advance, and He had the prior knowledge of them. Thus, He wrote all of it in this Preserved Tablet: مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ [57:22] "No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being – indeed that, for Allah, is easy –“235
The Quran is also written on in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet): بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ - فِي لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ -[85:21-22] "But this is an honored Qur'an. [Inscribed] in a Preserved Tablet” 236
“In Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz! meaning among the most high gathering, guarded from any increase, decrease, distortion, or change” 237. “أَيْ مَكْتُوب فِي لَوْح . وَهُوَ مَحْفُوظ عِنْد اللَّه تَعَالَى مِنْ وُصُول الشَّيَاطِين إِلَيْهِ . وَقِيلَ : هُوَ أُمّ الْكِتَاب ; وَمِنْهُ اُنْتُسِخَ الْقُرْآن وَالْكُتُب” - “this means writing on the Tablet, and it is saved with Allah (swt) from any access to devils, and said that it is mother of all books, and in it Quran is also inscribed” 238
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN QADAR OF ALLAH (SWT)
Correct understanding of Qadar of Allah as explained in Islam ensures that people do not fall into laziness, weakness or apathy. Fate and Destiny is a topic of great debate amongst various nations, and incorrect understanding results in misguidance, laziness, apathy and weaker belief in powers of Allah (swt). The Belief in Qadar of Allah (swt) as defined by Islam provides many benefits that revive and reforms our way of thinking
★ Belief in Qadar assert firm belief in powers of Allah (swt)
Al- Qada’a wal Qadar assert firm belief that there is no movement or power except by Allah. That Allah (swt) is the most powerful who has the knowledge and wisdom that supersede anyone else. Nothing can hide from him, nor can anything over take Him, and Allah (swt) prevails over all powers.
It establishes the perfectness in the Tawheed that Allah (swt) is the only Creator, and He (swt) alone created the entire universe and all creators, and His Divine Knowledge and Wisdom encompasses everything, every event, every movement, every moment.
★ Belief in Qadar teaches humbleness
When one firmly believes that all powers belongs to Allah (swt) and none can do any action without the permission and will of Allah (swt), then naturally humbleness grips him. Such a person can not be arrogant or ego centric. He believes that:
- Honour is with Allah (swt), and Allah (swt) gives honour to whomever He wishes.
- Power is with Allah (swt), and He (swt) gives power to whoever He wishes.
- Provisions and sustenance is with Allah (swt), and He (swt) gives provision to whoever He wishes without any limits.
- Kingdom is with Allah (swt) and He (swt) gives Kingdom to whoever He wishes.
- In fact, no one can hide from him and no one can do any act without Allah’s permission and will.
When Allah (swt) is the owner of everything and none can do anything without His will, then how can we (his creation) human be arrogant?
★ Belief in Qadar assert firm reliance on Allah (swt)
During the time of difficulties and calamities, this firm belief in Allah’s capability and His Divine powers, keeps us on straight path. That we know Allah (swt) is mighty all-powerful and all-knowing. No enemy can strike us if Allah (swt) doesn’t allow them. Hence, we must always ask Allah (swt) for help, and we must always disregard all His enemies and tyrants. That these tyrants and enemies of Allah do not control universe and they can never overcome Allah (swt).
★ Belief in Qadar teaches calmness in times of difficulties
People have different level of strengths and knowledge. When they are tested by calamities, accidents or difficult circumstances, their strengths or weakness shows up. Allah (swt) said: إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا، إِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا، إِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا، إِلَّا الْمُصَلِّينَ – - “70:19 Verily, man (disbeliever) was created very impatient; 70:20 Irritable (discontented) when evil touches him 70:21 And niggardly when good touches him;- 70:22 Except those devoted to Salat (prayers)” 294
Once a person believes in Qadar of Allah and understands the powers of Allah (swt) he will not fall into despair when calamity hits him, nor he will become reckless. He will know that whatever happens is from Allah, and nothing can happen except with Allah’s will.
Allah (swt) said: مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ، لِكَيْلَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلَا تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ - “57:22 No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfooz), before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah. 57:23 In order that you may not be sad over matters that you fail to get, nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters.” 295
And that after every difficulty there is ease. And while Allah (swt) has tested him with calamity, it is only Allah (swt) who will bestow his mercy and bounties on him. And instead of despair and chaos, he must ask Allah (swt) for forgiveness and mercy. Thus, a believer passes such time with patience and his firm believe in Qadar of Allah (swt) brings him contentment and tranquillity to his heart. And he is happy with Allah (swt) in every state.
Allah (swt) described the characteristics of such person:الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُواْ إِنَّا لِلّهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ، أُولَـئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ - “2:156 Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return." 2:157 They are those on whom are the Salawat (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones.” 296
★ Belief in Qadar strengthens confidence and stronger heart
Belief in Judgment Day
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH BELIEF IN JUDGEMENT DAY
As-Salat “الصلاة” – The compulsory prayers
As-Salat “الصلاة” is second pillar of Islam. As-Salat “الصلاة” is obligatory on every adult sane Muslims 5 times a day during prescribed hours. Allah (swt) said:
Each component has a procedure prescribed by the Prophet (pbuh) who explained every detail of it. When As-Salat “الصلاة” is a نفل (nafl, non-obligatory or optional) then the Adhan (آذان) and Jamat (جماعة) is not necessary.
Because as-Salat “الصلاة” is such integral part of Deen of Islam and no Muslim ever disputed the 5 times daily as-Salat, we will focus mainly on its benefits on our character.
Pray facing House of Allah in Makkah (Kaba): However, one important point to note is that as-Salat must be prayed facing the House of Allah (swt) in Makkah. The House of Allah was first built by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) who established the as-Salat and al-Hajj 309. Hence, wherever Muslims are in Universe, they must face towards Makkah where the House of Allah (swt) is established.
Allah (swt) has commanded us to face towards His house in absolute terms: وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ فَلاَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي - “And from where so ever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah), and where so ever you are, turn your faces towards, it (when you pray) so that men may have no argument against you except those of them that are wrong-doers, so fear them not, but fear Me!” 310
When Muslims pray towards Kaba they are not worshiping the house built of stones, but rather to have a direction (called Qibla - قبلة) where everything one will face collectively. It’s merely a focal point of prayers. In fact during the person’s intend is that he is standing in front of Allah (swt) and that even he cannot see Allah (swt) from his place but Allah (swt) is watching over him. Allah (swt) answered this in this way: وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ – “Everyone has a direction towards which he turns in Prayer: so try to excel one another in good works.” 311 Meaning that people have to face towards a direction anyways to pray, but to avoid any confusion and chaos, they all are directed to pray towards Kaba. Like they use to pray towards Bayt al-Maqdis in Palestine, or Jews use to pray facing the temple mount 312. And Allah (swt) additionally explained that all directions belong to Allah (swt), and he could’ve asked us to face any one of them: (قُل لِّلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ)313. The main point is the unconditional obedience of Allah (swt).
As-Salat can be performed anywhere on earth
Prayers can be performed anywhere on earth: The Prophet (pbuh) said that for Muslims the entire earth is a place of prayer. This attribute distinguishes Shariah of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) from the Shariah of other Prophets that came before.
Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "I have been given five things which were not given to any amongst the Prophets before me. These are:
1. Allah made me victorious by awe (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. 2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum. Therefore my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. 3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me (and was not made so for anyone else). 4. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation exclusively but I have been sent 1o all mankind. 5. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection.) [Sahih al-Bukhari] 314
Islam is an easy religion and it is the religion that removes difficulties. Entire earth is mosque for Muslims,. They can pray anywhere as far as that place is Tahir (pure, clean) and not Najis (unclean) and is not a place where it is forbidden to pray. This is a unique privilege that Allah (swt) did not bestow on any other nation before us.
Similarly, just like Allah (swt) made entire earth as mosque, He allowed us to make Tayammum (تيمم) from it. Normally wudu (وضو) is done to purify before prayers, but if one is unable to do wudu, then Allah has granted us a concession and has prescribed Tayammum (تيمم) as an alternative to water, and made it a means of purification for the Muslim. But if it is too difficult to do tayammum, then it is permissible to pray without wudu and without tayammum.
However, following places are considered prohibited (haram) for as-Salat:
- Najis (نجس): as-Salat is not to be performed in any unclean place. The cleanliness can be defined in three ways: (a) where there is garbage or excrement, (b) graveyards where praying reflects Shirk, (c) place where haram things like alcohol is served or fahisha is apparent, e.g. bars or clubs
- Graveyard: As-Salat cannot be performed in Graveyard. The two prayers allowed inside the graveyard are (a) Salat-ul-Janaza (صلاة الجـنازة , Funeral Prayers for deceased) in where there is no prostration, (b) The prayer for deceased, e.g. by saying oh Allah forgive so and so. The Daleel for prohibition in graveyard are:
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “All the earth is a mosque apart from the graveyards and bathrooms.” 315
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “May Allah curse the Jews and the Christians, for they have taken the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.”316
- Toilets or Bath rooms: where people go to relief themselves. No prayers can be done inside these rooms as mentioned in hadith earlier.
Prayer Mats: It is permissible to pray on a mat or rug, as far is it doesn’t have pictures or distractions on it. “Maymoonah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to pray on a khumrah.” 317 A khumrah is a mat made of palm leaves that is big enough for the face, on which a worshipper may prostrate to protect himself from the heat or coldness of the ground. However there are following conditions that must be observed:
- Mat should not have any images of animate beings:
Abu Talhah (ra), according to which the Prophet (pbuh) said: “The angels do not enter any house in which there is an image.”[Sahih al-Bukhari, al-Muslim] 318
- Mat should not have any decoration that distracts the person’s attention who is praying:
Aisha (ra) said that the Prophet (pbuh) prayed in a black cloak that had markings, and he looked at its markings. When he finished praying, he said: “Take this cloak to Abu Jahm ibn Hudhayfah, and bring me his plain garment, for they distracted me just now when I was praying.” Hishaam ibn Urwah narrated from his father, from Aisha (ra) that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “I was looking at its markings whilst I was praying and I was afraid that they would distract me.” [Sahih al-Bukhari, al-Muslim] 319
- Praying on mat should not be for reason to avoid praying on the ground: The Prophet (pbuh) use to pray on ground. He prayed on ground even when it was raining and his face got the wet mud.
Bukhari narrated: “…. Then a cloud came and it rained, and the iqamah for prayer was given, and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prostrated in mud and water until we saw the marks of mud on the tip of his nose and his face.” [Sahih al-Bukhari]320 . Muslim narrated: “And his forehead was covered with mud and water.”[Sahih al-Muslim] 321
This shows the humbleness and Khusoo of Prophet (pbuh)’s prayers.
Ibn Taymiyah said: “With regard to those who suffer from extreme waswasah (وسوسه, whispers from the Shaytaan), they do not pray on the ground or on the carpets spread out for everyone on the ground, rather they pray on a rug or something similar.”
“Praying on rugs, in the sense that the worshipper insists on that – this was not the way of the salaf, the Muhaajireen and Ansaar and those who followed them in truth at the time of the Messenger of Allah. Rather they used to pray on the ground in his mosque, and none of them had a rug that was used just for prayer. It was narrated that when Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Mahdi came to Medina he spread out a rug, and Imam Malik ordered that it be taken away. It was said to him, “He is Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Mahdi.” Imam Malik said, “Do you not know that spreading a rug in our mosque is bid’ah (an innovation)?” 322
It is strange that people live in waswasah (وسوسه) when they make Tayammum (تيمم) from same earth. If there is no apparent Najis on the ground, then it is clean enough to pray on it. The Prophet (pbuh) is the most Tahir of all of us, and he prayed on ground. The people or animals walking on the ground don’t make it Najis.
Praying in shoes: Prophet (pbuh) use to pray in his shoes323. Sa'd b. Yazid reported: “I said to Anas b. Malik: Did the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) pray while putting on the shoes? He said: Yes.”[Sahih al-Muslim]
- Wiping over shoes:While making wudu (وضو), it is not needed to wipe bottom part of shoes. Ali ibn AbuTalib narrated: “If the religion were based on opinion, it would be more important to wipe the under part of the shoe than the upper but I have seen the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wiping over the upper part of his shoes.” 324
- Sand purifies filth under Shoes: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “if any one of you walks over filth wearing shoes then (walking over) sand will purify it.” 325
Prophet (pbuh) said: “When any one of you comes to the mosque, let him look at his shoes, and if he sees anything dirty on them, let him wipe them, because they may be purified by rubbing them with dust.” 326
At the time of Prophet (pbuh) mosques were simple and unfurnished, the floor was of raw sand stones and there were no mats. Nowadays mosque are usually carpeted and furnished, if so we should keep it clean from dirt of shoes and not enter wearing shoes, lest we make the place dirty by bringing in something unclean on our shoes.
However, prayers with shoes are valid in open field or grass or places where people walk with shoes.
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH AS-SALAH - PRAYERS
As-Salat is a reminder and renewal of commitment to Allah (swt):
Every time we stand up to الصلاة (as-Salat, prayer) in front of Allah (swt) we renew our unflinching commitment and obedience to Him. As-Salat is sign of complete submission and total obedience to Allah (swt). We stand, we bow and we prostrate and repeatedly affirm our commitment to Allah (swt). When we pray, we remind our selves that we are the servant of Allah (swt). He is our creator and sustainer, He is our helper and guide.
★ As-Salat will strengthen the belief in Allah (swt):
Allah swt said: فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ - وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ – “So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him). And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the certainty (i.e. death).” 327
As-Salat (الصلاة) creates the consciousness of being a slave, strengthen faith in God, in His Messenger and in His Book, belief in the Hereafter, fear of God, acknowledgement that Allah (swt) is Master and Creator of everything that exists including things we can’t see. It also strengthens our commitment to obey Allah swt and His commandments. This makes us true and honest slave of Allah (swt) in real sense.
★ As-Salat will increase Taqwa:
When a person hears آذان (call to prayer) 5 times a day, and every times he hears this summon he leaves all his activities and gets up to meet his Master, he first make وضو (ablution) to purify his body sot that he meet his Master in pure state, He perform his as-Salat الصلاة) standing before Him, He bows down and prostrate before Him, and he repeats this act 5 times a day over and over again until dead takes over. Then how is it possible that this person this person doesn’t increase in fear of Allah? Such routines not only increase his Taqwa but increases level of his Iman, and he will feel ashamed to commit any illegal act or sin. Let’s count how many times he repeats it in a day? 36 rakats (obligatory Salah and Sunnah). 36 times he repeats “oh Allah you are the lord of both worlds, you alone we worship, you alone we seek help.” He bows 36 times and he prostrates 72 times and every times he says (سبحان ربي الاعلي) “Blessed is my Lord, Who is most High and Sublime”. Imagine you going to your boss in the office and repeating this many times a day that you will do your job correctly! After you visit your boss few times you will be ashamed had you done your work wrong. Then how is it possible that a person standing in front of Lord of all worlds and repeating these words over and over again and still disobey him? This is the reason as-Salat is protection for believer, it increases the Taqwa and stops them from any sinful act.
★ As-Salat is Protection from Evil and vice:
Allah (swt) said in Quran that prayer protect from sins and unlawful activities: وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ - “… and perform As-Salat (وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ). Verily, As-Salat (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha (الْفَحْشَاء - i.e. great sins of every kind, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) and Al-Munkar (الْمُنكَرِ - i.e. disbelief, polytheism, and every kind of evil wicked deed, etc.)...”
It is important to note that this is not merely movement of bodily parts and uttering of words, but in reality it is to understand the meaning and purpose of as-Salat (الصلاة) and understand the words of Quran that are recited during the prayers. The recitation that is not understood and practice is like words that do not go beyond the throat to the heart. A Hadith says: “They will recite the Qur'an, but the Qur'an will not go beyond their throats; they will leave the Faith just as the arrow leaves the bow.” 329. If this recitation doesn’t affect any change in way of thinking, and it doesn’t improves the morals and character, and person keep on doing acts that are against the teaching of Quran, then this cannot be recitation of a believer at all.
★ As-Salat teaches Patience (صبر):
Patience and perseverance are law of the nature. Islam teaches patience in everything and as-Salat is the stimulus of providing patience. It energized the Iman and increased the level of patience. Its removes the suffering and misery from affecting the heart like the sponge sucks the spilled water.
Allah swt said: وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا – “And enjoin As-Salat (the prayer) on your family, and be patient in offering them (i.e. the Salat (prayers)).” 330.
Allah swt said: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلاَةِ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ – “O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer). Truly! Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.).” 331
Allah swt said: وَاسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلاَةِ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ – “And seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashioon (i.e. the true believers in Allah - those who obey Allah with full submission, fear much from His Punishment, and believe in His Promise (Paradise, etc.) and in His Warnings (Hell, etc.)).” 332
Allah swt said: وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ – “And keep yourself (O Muhammad) patiently with those who call on their Lord (i.e. your companions who remember their Lord with glorification, praising in prayers, etc., and other righteous deeds, etc.) morning and afternoon, seeking His Face” 333
★ As-Salat is Tazkiya (Purify Soul)
★ As-Salat is guaranteed investment:
As-Salat (الصلاة) is an investment that can never bring loss (تِجَارَةً لَّن تَبُورَ). Allah swt said: “Verily, those who recite the Book of Allah, and perform As-Salat, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a (sure) trade gain that will never perish. That He may pay them their wages in full, and give them (even) more, out of His Grace..” 334
★ As-Salat is a wakeup call:
The آذان (call to prayer) draws the mind and wakes up the heart. It is the announcement of the greatness of Allah and his Tawheed. It invites to success (حئي علي الصلواة). This is not the sound of bell like in other religions, but certainly a sound invitation towards the success. When we hear this call five times a day our heart becomes mellow. Sound of “Allah is greatest, Allah is greatest” and “come to prayers, come to success” creates a stir in our heart. It constantly reminds us with the covenant that we made to Allah (swt). Had we taken a loan from someone and he comes to our house five times a day to ask for it and we still don’t return it? What will be our mental state then? Ask those who take loans. They play hide and seek with the guys who gave them loan because they can’t face him. Imagine, can we play hide and seek from Allah (swt)? Can we really hide from whom nothing is hidden?
Adhan (آذان) is a constant and persistent reminder that we owe Allah (swt), we make a commitment and we must fulfill it. We can run from Him temporarily until He allows us but we can’t really hide. One day dead will take over and we will have to present before Allah (swt) for accountability. Now is the time to act, now is the time when we can fulfill our duty. So, let us respond to this call and perform our duty.
★ As-Salat teaches Purification (طهارة):
Islam is pure (طيبة), and it promotes purity (طيبة) in every aspect of life. As-Salat (الصلاة) helps this purpose is to purify us inwardly (تزكية النفس) and outwardly. As-Salat cannot be performed with cleanliness. It is performed by a person with not impurity and in a clean place. Hence, two things are important for as-Salat, that a person performs وضو (ablution) and that he performs it at a clean place. The cleanliness of the place is not limited to physical cleanliness, but also clean of any shirk and bidda (i.e. cannot pray on graves, or in pub or bars that are filthy places because of activities that happens there etc)
Cleansing of Body: وضو (ablution) is compulsory action before as-Salat can be performed. Hence, Muslim clean and wash their body at-least five times a day. If he is impure due to the consummation with wife then he must do غسل (Ghusal, bath).
Cleansing of Soul:As-Salat (الصلاة) purifies the soul and removes the sins. Uthman bin Affan reported: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: He who performed ablution well, his sins would come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails.” 335
Abu Huraira reported: “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: When the Mu'adhdhin calls to prayer, Satan runs back vehemently.” 336
As-Salat teaches Value of time: Islam is religion that recognizes the value of time the most. It emphasized the value of time in many of its teachings. It asked Muslims to avoid wasting time in meaningless and wasteful things. Its wisdom is to warn people against those who invite in time wasting activities. Those foolish people do not understand that their clock is ticking and a day of reckoning is near. Wasting time in general is harmful for individual as well as for entire society.
Allah swt has created a balance in our life by evenly distributing our activities over the 24 hours. During this we have time to rest and time to work. During this period we also pray, we help people, we visit family and friends, we look after poor and needy, and we keep a tap in community.
For such a busy schedule in a day there is no time to waste. Hence, Islam asks the person to get up very early in the morning to make the most of the day. The day in Islamic System starts with فجر (Fajr is the morning prayers). It starts just before the sun rises (between 5:00 am – 7:00 am in most countries depending on season). The Fajr (فجر) prayers provide the stimulus for the day and it starts the day with enthusiasm and resolve. Not only that, it also forces the Muslims to sleep early at night so that they can get proper rest and avoid any sinful and prohibited activities that people usually do at night (i.e. bars, clubs, late night music movie shows and other time wasting activities).
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Fatima, daughter of Prophet reported: ‘The Messenger of Allah (swt) passed by me while I was still in bed. He shook me by my leg and said: ‘O my dear daughter! Get up and see the provisions of your Lord; do not be among those who are negligent, because Allah distributes the sustenance between the break of the dawn and the sun rise.” 337
Hence, the Fajr (فجر) prayer removes the laziness and energizes the person, and emphasize on importance of time. That’s why Allah (swt) said it’s heavy on people except true believers! (وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ).
★ As-Salat teaches Punctuality:
During the day, the as-Salat (الصلاة) are distributed and to be perform at regular intervals. There are five prayers throughout the day, and Muslims visit the mosque at a specified time to join the congregational prayers (e.g. Fajr 6:00 am, Zuhr 1:30 pm, Asr 4:30 pm, Maghrib 7:00 pm, Isha 9:30 pm. Note, In west, due to being in non-Muslim land, Muslims organizes smaller congregational gathering within their workplaces, however, they still meet at appointed time to say their prayers). Hence, as-Salat builds this punctuality of time into the Muslim Character. They ensure they do good time management to meet their Salah timings. Similarly, good Muslims are always punctual to work and their meeting as this is natural part of their day to day affairs. Thanks to as-Salat (الصلاة).
★ As-Salat teaches Equality:
Everyone is equal in Allah’s eye. As-Salat (الصلاة) is an act that serves as reminder for that message. All Muslims regardless of their status, either a Minister or a peasant, rich or poor, educated or illiterate, Industrialist or a farmer, black or white, they all stand in one line in front of Allah (swt) and bow down in submissions.
★ As-Salat teaches Modesty:
As-Salat (الصلاة) teaches modesty. Modesty is the true indicator of human nature. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Every religion has its character. Modesty is Islam’s character” 338. For instance, As-Salat and obscenity are opposite of each other. When a person comes to prayer he/she dress with modesty in neat and clean clothes. In the mosque which is a place free of profanity they cannot use foul language, they cannot back bite, they cannot probe into people private life etc. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Modesty is Iman and its abode is Paradise, obscenity is animosity and its destination is Hell” .339
Modesty demands talk with moderation. Inside the mosque, they speak with softness without any rage. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “He who learned the art of oratory in order to influence people’s minds, Allah will not accept his argumentation on the judgment day” 340. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Allah dislikes these orators who move their tongues like cow when it chews the cud”341 . Allah (swt) doesn’t like speeches that are filled with exaggeration and hypocrisy.
When a person stands before Allah (swt) he truly learns the lesson of Modesty. In a Hadith: “Abdullah bin Masood reported that the Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘Behave with modesty before Allah as it out to be.’ We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! We behave with modesty before Allah and we thank Him for it.’ He replied: ‘This is not modesty as it should be. Modesty demands that you protect your heads and limbs from falsehood and your stomachs from unlawful food, and remember death and the grave. He, who gives up the allurements of this world and prefers the Hereafter to this life, has fulfilled Allah’s right of modesty.” 342
Modest Muslim do not let falsehood come out of their tongue, his eyes do not look towards anything this is lustful and unlawful, his ears do not listen to the secrets, he avoids eating haram food, he spend his time seeking Allah’s pleasure, he doesn’t backbite, he doesn’t do obscenity, he doesn’t harm anyone, he remains polite and in best of manners. Amazingly, during the as-Salat a Muslim practice all of these elements of Modesty in a single event!!!
★ As-Salat teaches Discipline:
During the prayers they learn utmost discipline. When they hear آذان (call to prayer) they come rushing from all directions, similar to when a commander whistles to gather his troops and they marches in very organized fashion. Now they gathered in one place and form a jamat (team), like a battalion. They are like soldiers of Allah (swt) gathering in front of him after He summons them through Adhan. They form the rows and stand in a straight line, like the soldiers in the field. They stand firm shoulder to shoulder in a straight row. They appoint a leader who stands in front of them, just like a commander. They follow their Imam (leader) who leads the as-Salat in complete harmony and uni-sense. Once this jamat (team) is formed they cannot part from it. They follow the actions of the Imam (leader) step by step in complete unity. They bow together, then they stand up together, they prostrate together. They look like a single entity, very similar to the marching soldiers in the field. This is ultimate height of unity and discipline when none of them even look up or look left or right, they all focus in prayers. No one watches over them except their Lord but they show such discipline as if their Lord is standing in front of them.
Narrated Anas bin Malik, the Prophet said: “Imam is meant to be followed, so when he says Allahu Akbar, say Allahu Akbar and when he bows, bow and when he prostrates, prostrate and if he prays standing, pray standing.” 343
However, there is no following of Imam when he commits a major mistake as in Islam “there is no obedience in sin”. Hence, if Imam commits a shirk, kufr or a clear sin, then it is incumbent on jammat to break away from Imam. This too is part of higher discipline of Islam, where Muslims don’t follow anyone in disobedience of Allah (swt) or in disobedience of Prophet (pbuh).
★ As-Salat teaches Brotherhood:
as-Salat (الصلاة) strengthens the foundation of brotherhood. Regardless of the status, class, race, color, wealth of people, it brings all of them in one place. It asks them to stand in one row side-by-side, without distinction and character. It revives the common kinship that has been lost amongst other cultures. It emphasize that every Muslim is the brother of other Muslim, they are like flowers of same true on different branches. They stand in front of Allah (swt) in collective gathering with rows representing the branches of tree and the mosque is the tree. Hence, they are a single soul and single brotherhood.
Islam is against selfishness and it promotes brotherhood. A Muslim must think beyond himself, he must know that all he has is favor from Allah (swt) and his امانة (trust, deposit), and he must recognize others right. He must feel the pain and suffering of other brothers, and share in their grief and sorrows. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Muslims in their mutual love, compassion, and sympathy are like a body. When a part of it hurts, the entire body hurts with sleeplessness and fever.” 344
True compassion is to find out that state of other brother and support him proactively. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “a Muslim is a brother to another Muslim; he is neither unjust to him nor usurps his right. He who supplied his Muslim brother’s needs, Allah will alleviate his needs. He who removed the affliction of his brother Muslim, Allah will remove his affliction. He who covered his Muslim brother, Allah will cover him on the Judgment Day”345. As-Salat (الصلاة) helps in promoting this concept. It provides them the base to discuss and find opportunities to support brotherhood.
★ As-Salat teaches bond of love:
Congregation prayers (like, 5 daily prayers, Friday prayers) create a bond of love and strong community feeling amongst Muslims. It creates strong sense of support and unity. It fosters deep feeling of brotherhood. When the two Muslim brothers meet each other in the mosque and have dialogue with each other, they get to know each other problems. They can see each other state and if they notice sorrow in eyes, if they notice hunger on the face, if they notice torn clothes, it will inevitably spark sympathy and because of direct contact it will take heavy toll on the heart. The brothers who are well-off and rich will inevitably help the needy brother.
The problem in modern culture is that they destroyed this direct contact between rich and poor, rich only meets with rich and poor only meets with poor, hence this feeling of sympathy is practically dead. Islam encourages this feeling by providing a central place for them to meet and socialize, so that they can understand each other issues and help.
To leave a Muslim alone in state of misery without helping him is reprehensible. It destroys mutual dignity and honor, and lets the oppressed by subdued unjustly. When feeling of brotherhood is gone and a Muslim looks at other Muslim’s misery and shrugs his shoulders, then Muslims as individuals and as a nation are humiliated and disgraced. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “None of you should keep silent when you see a person being oppressed. Those who were present but did not defend the oppressed would be cursed”346. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Help your brother whether he is an oppressor or oppressed. Somebody asked: ‘It is understandable to help the oppressed. How can we help the oppressor?’ The Messenger replied: ‘Stopping him from oppressing others is helping him.’”347.
★ As-Salat helps in Neighbor-hood watch:
Daily five times congregational prayers keep them updated about each other situation. They know if one of their brothers is in need of their help, so they can extend their support. They also get to know who is living in the neighbor-hood and what business or occupation this person has, what kind of family this person has. Do they have some family issues or internal rift that the brothers can mutually resolve, either it’s due to financial issues or domestic issues. Do they have kids, does these kids get their education, and if not can the help them financially or otherwise so that these kids can prosper.
★ As-Salat teaches Community Support:
Mosque serves a purpose of community centre. It is a place where all Muslims meet five times a day. It is a sacred place where there is no filth, no illegal activity, and no illicit activity. It’s a community place to promote brotherhood, compassion, selflessness, love and caring. When a Muslim frequently visits a mosque, he knows that he has many friends in community. If he is in trouble and he needs help then he can count on Community Support. He knows he is not alone and he has many brothers and friends who will be eager to extend their help and support to him. This feeling of belonging to a جماعة (jamat) elevates the level of satisfaction and security in his heart and he feels secure.
Az-Zakat “الزكواة” – Obligatory yearly charity
Az-Zakat “الزكواة” is the third most important pillar of Islam after as-Salat. Az-Zakat “الزكواة” is mentioned in Quran 82 times. It obligatory on all eligible Muslims as it was also obligatory on nations348 before Islam. Allah (swt) mentioned it in Quran next to as-Salat. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ – “Truly those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, they will have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” [Al-Baqarah 2:277].
Allah (swt) said in the beginning of Quran:
الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
2:3 Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them (i.e. give Zakat , spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allahs Cause - Jihad, etc.). [Al-Baqarah]
Here Az-Zakat “الزكواة” has been mentioned with Belief in Tawheed and as-Salat, and later Allah (swt) mentioned that these are the successful people: أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ – “They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.”[Al-Baqarah 2:5]. Meaning those who don’t believe in Tawheed of Allah (swt) and don’t pray, don’t fast, and don’t believe in Judgment Day are not going to be successful.
Az-Zakat “الزكواة” means purity or cleanliness. It is called so because paying Zakat (charity) purifies the wealth of Muslims and it also purifies the soul (تزكية النفس). Allah (swt) also declared that pay Zakat (charity) actually increase the wealth and also elevate the honor and status of the person near Allah (swt).
Az-Zakat “الزكواة” is kind of wealth tax that is due if the wealth exceed a defined threshold at the end of one complete year on Muslims who are eligible (صاحب نصاب). Zakat is only due on accumulated wealth and certain types of wealth, commodities and livestock. It is to be taken from rich and given to poor and needy. There is no Zakat on personal belongings, personal assets, and personal automobiles etc.
Zakat is on excess money/item which is above and beyond person’s needs 349, and Nisab (نصاب) defines that threshold of excess. Nisab (نصاب) for wealth, gold, silver, animals and livestock have different threshold limits. Nisab of wealth (cash) is defined based on Gold value. Person should hold the wealth for entire year for it to be eligible for Zakat payment. Following are eligible for Zakat payment based on individual Nisabs (نصاب) 350:
- Zakat on accumulated wealth (e.g. cash, saving in banks) is 2.5 % for every year.
- Amongst animals it includes Camel, Cow and livestock (goat, sheep).
- Amongst commodities it includes Gold and Silver.
- Zakat on Agriculture income is 10% on every cultivation.
- Zakat on business income & assets 351
- There is no Zakat on Diamonds or animals used for travel or pets or personal belongings.
“مصارف الزكواة” - Eligibility for Receiving Zakat includes Eight as per this verse of Quran: إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ – “As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakat) are only for the Fuqara (poor), and Al-Masakin (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allahs Cause (i.e. for Mujahidoon - those fighting in the holy wars), and for the wayfarer (a traveler who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.”[at-Tawba 9:60].
Those who do not pay Az-Zakat “الزكواة” are strongly condemned and considered Mushriks (مشرك) and deniers of Judgment Day. Allah (swt) said: وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ - الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ – “And woe to Al-Mushrikoon (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, idolaters, etc. Those who give not the Zakat and they are disbelievers in the Hereafter”[Fussilat 41:6-7]. This is the reason when after the demise of Prophet (pbuh) few Arab tribes refused to pay Zakat, the then Caliph Abu Bakar Siddique (ra) declared war on them and send out an army until they paid Zakat, and His decision became consensus of all Companions of Prophet (pbuh).
These are commands relating to Zakat. However, for Sadaqa “صدقـة” (Voluntary Charity) there is no Nisab or eligibility except that Allah (swt) said whatever is in excess beyond personal needs. It is highly encouraged to give out Sadaqat (Voluntary Charities).
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH AZ-ZAKAH - CHARITY
★ Az-Zakat payers are friends and party of Allah (swt):
The three main Pillars of Islam has special status, i.e. Tawheed, as-Salat (prayers) and az-Zakat (charity). Whoever reflects and act upon these 3 Pillars as they should be performed, then that person receives entry to a very special club. This is club of very close friends of Allah (swt).
Allah (swt) said: إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ - وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ – “Verily, your Walee (Protector or Helper) is Allah, His Messenger, and the believers, - those who perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, and they bow down (submit themselves with obedience to Allah in prayer). And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as Protectors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious.” 352
★ Az-Zakat brings closer to the creator, Allah (swt):
Zakat is a virtue that’s highly rewarded by Allah (swt), and elevates the person spiritually and bring him closer to God. Allah (swt) is benevolent and generous, and He loves these traits. Zakat is a trait that teaches generocity and benevolence. A generous person is closer to Allah (swt), as the Prophet (pbuh) said:
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " السَّخِيُّ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ بَعِيدٌ مِنَ النَّارِ وَالْبَخِيلُ بَعِيدٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ بَعِيدٌ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ بَعِيدٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَجَاهِلٌ سَخِيٌّ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ عَابِدٍ بَخِيلٍ "
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said: "Generosity is close to Allah, close to Paradise, close to the people and far from the Fire. Stinginess is far from Allah, far from Paradise, far from the people and close to the Fire. The ignorant generous person, is more beloved to Allah than the worshiping stingy person." 353
★ Az-Zakat achieves purification of soul & wealth:
Islam always calls for Tahir (طاهر) and Tayyab (طيبة) in every transaction, dealings, earning or eating. Allah swt said: (يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُواْ مِمَّا فِي الأَرْضِ حَلاَلاً طَيِّباً) “O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.”354
Paying Zakat (Charity) purifies one’s Wealth & Soul: Allah swt said (خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا) “Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it,…” 355
★ Az-Zakat cures from the sins:
★ Az-Zakat reduces love for wealth and material:
Islam teaches balanced way of life, neither it professes full occupation of collection material wealth that person can’t perform other responsibilities (for Deen of Allah, for family, for community etc), nor does it process complete seclusion (like monks). It professes that while person earn money, he should ensure proper time management to spend time with other responsibilities. Similar, when a person becomes rich and wealthy, he should not fall in love with money and material that he has collect. In fact, he should become more compassionate and be willing to sacrifice this material in way of Allah (swt) and to help poor and needy. Allah (swt) advised us to focus on next world:
Allah (swt) said: زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ مِنَ النِّسَاء وَالْبَنِينَ وَالْقَنَاطِيرِ الْمُقَنطَرَةِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ وَالْخَيْلِ الْمُسَوَّمَةِ وَالأَنْعَامِ وَالْحَرْثِ ذَلِكَ مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاللّهُ عِندَهُ حُسْنُ الْمَآبِ – “Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, much of gold and silver (wealth), branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. This is the pleasure of the present world’s life; but Allah has the excellent return (Paradise with flowing rivers, etc.) with Him.” 356
And Allah (swt) also said: زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا – “Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve.”357
If a person doesn’t have wealth he has no accountability, but if he has wealth then he is accountable to answer Allah (swt) as to how he spends his wealth. That’s why the Companion of Prophet (pbuh) never accumulated wealth and they will spend it or give its out in charity as soon as they receive it.
Income is from Allah: So one should not be proud of having wealth because Sustenance (رزق) is only from Allah swt. He gives provisions to whomever he wishes and He stops provisions of whom He wishes (إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاء وَيَقْدِرُ). “Indeed, your Lord extends provision for whom He wills and restricts [it]”358 . The reason given is that entire universe belongs to Allah (swt), who solely controls all affairs of His universe. Hence, it is in his hand that (لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاء وَيَقْدِرُ) “To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He extends provision for whom He wills and restricts [it].” 359. So, when he gets wealth, he should be willing to spend it in Allah’s way.
Also people must not engage in non ethical and unjust businesses to harm the interest of community. E.g. Businesses like gambling, winery, and hoarding are all prohibited. Neither do they become so obsessed with money that they become dishonest and unjustly take others money: (لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ) “O you who have believed, do not consume one another's wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another].” 360
Hence, the objective is that people do not love wealth but spend it in Allah’s way to help and needy etc: Allah (swt) said: لَن تَنَالُواْ الْبِرَّ حَتَّى تُنفِقُواْ مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ وَمَا تُنفِقُواْ مِن شَيْءٍ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ – “By no means shall you attain Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc., it means here Allah’s Reward, i.e. Paradise), unless you spend (in Allah’s Cause) of that which you love; and whatever of good you spend, Allah knows it well.” 361
★ Az-Zakat protects from usury (الربا):
Islam promotes giving out wealth in charity and prohibits accumulating it, especially when it’s unjustly accumulated like Riba. Allah (swt) said:
وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُو عِندَ اللَّهِ وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ – “And whatever you give for interest to increase within the wealth of people will not increase with Allah. But what you give in zakah, desiring the countenance of Allah – those are the multipliers”362
Zakat (Charity) is highly rewarded by Allah (swt) because it’s compassionate and helping needy. On the other hand sucking blood of poor people by taking Riba (interest) is condemned: يَمْحَقُ اللّهُ الْرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ – “Allah destroys interest and gives increase for charities. And Allah does not like every sinning disbeliever.”363
★ Az-Zakat is mean for Mercy:
Allah (swt) is merciful towards His creations. He sent us His deen through His merciful Messenger who was kind to people, who taught us mercy and be kind to people. Prophet said: عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُمُ الرَّحْمَنُ ارْحَمُوا مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ يَرْحَمْكُمْ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاءِ الرَّحِمُ ..." - "The merciful (merciful people) are shown mercy by Ar-Rahman (Allah the Merciful). Be merciful on the earth, and you will be shown mercy from Who is above the heavens. 364
Allah (swt) called on the believers to remind that Allah is merciful, and the pious believer needs to show mercy and give zakat: وَرَحْمَتِي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ فَسَأَكْتُبُهَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِآيَاتِنَا يُؤْمِنُونَ - My Mercy embraces all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who are the Muttaqun (pious), and give Zakat; and those who believe in Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs and revelations, etc.); 365
★ Az-Zakat teaches Generosity:
Allah (swt) is غني (rich but generous, free of all wants) and he like Muslims to be generous (سخي). He doesn’t like misery, stingy and covetous people 366. Neither do keep reminding people when you help them. Generosity is when you help others you don’t keep on reminding them about it. Allah (swt) said: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تُبْطِلُواْ صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالأذَى كَالَّذِي يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاء النَّاسِ وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ - “O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day” 367
★ Az-Zakat is for Distribution of Wealth amongst the society:
In Islam individuals have right to own and accumulate wealth, but a portion of their wealth is shared with others in community and family. Islam uses various vehicles to distribute wealth e.g. Charity (صدقة), Zakat (زكواة), hibba (حبة) and Inheritance (تركة). Islam discourages hoarding wealth and it considers this an ethical responsibility of richer in the society to help poor and needy. These systems maintain the balance of wealth distribution and it gives protection to poor.
★ Az-Zakat prevents hoarding of wealth:
Islam strongly prohibits hoarding of wealth or resources and not use it to help needy. (وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَّهُمْ) “And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) (and) think that it is good for them (and so they do not pay the obligatory Zakat). Nay, it will be worse for them; the things which they covetously withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection…”368
Allah swt cursed those who accumulate wealth and do not help others: (وَيْلٌ لِّكُلِّ هُمَزَةٍ لُّمَزَةٍ..) “Who has gathered wealth and counted it. He thinks that his wealth will make him last forever! Nay! Verily, he will be thrown into the crushing Fire”369. Instead, Allah swt asked to spend wealth: “O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you…”370
(span class="quran">وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ) “.. And those who hoard up gold and silver (Al-Kanz: the money, the Zakat of which has not been paid), and spend it not in the Way of Allah, -announce unto them a painful torment”371
★ Az-Zakat protects from becoming miserly (بخيل):
It is well known that the Prophet (pbuh) was very generous and kind person. He always reaches out to help needy. The Prophet (pbuh) use to make dua and equated it with being cowardice, (…للَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبُخْلِ، وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ،) - “.. "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from miserliness; and seek refuge with You from cowardice; ..."372.
He (pbuh) warned us from being miserly, and stated that this is a culprit that destroyed many previous nations.
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ خَطَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ " إِيَّاكُمْ وَالشُّحَّ فَإِنَّمَا هَلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ بِالشُّحِّ أَمَرَهُمْ بِالْبُخْلِ فَبَخَلُوا وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِالْقَطِيعَةِ فَقَطَعُوا وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِالْفُجُورِ فَفَجَرُوا " .
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) preached and said: Abstain from avarice373, for those who had been before you were annihilated due to avarice. It (avarice) commanded them to show niggardliness; it commanded them to cut off their relationship with their nearest relatives, so they cut off. It commanded them to show profligacy, so they showed it. 374
Allah (swt) mentioned in the Quran that satan always misguides us with love of money, and scare us with poverty, so we hold our money back. الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّـهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٢٦٨﴾ - Shaitan (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.375
And Allah (swt) calls towards spending money to help people by doing charity through as-sadaqa and az-zakat.
The Prophet (pbuh) highlighted that believer is generous, and corrupt is miserly.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم: الْمُؤْمِنُ غِرٌّ كَرِيمٌ، وَالْفَاجِرُ خَبٌّ لَئِيمٌ.
Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The believer is guileless and generous while the corrupt is a swindler and miserly." 376
And Allah (swt) warned the miserly that الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّـهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا - Those who are miserly and enjoin miserliness on other men and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounties. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment. 377
★ Az-Zakat to be taken from Wealthy and given to Poor:
Islam promotes Zakat (Charity) and compassion. It recognizes the problem that wealth must be equally distributed amongst the society so that there is lesser gap between poor and rich. This is evident from famous hadith of Muadh (معاذ) when Prophet (pbuh) sent him to Yamen He advised him that its responsibility of rich to give charity to poor.
Narrated Ibn Abbas: “When Allah's Apostle (pbuh) sent Muadh to Yemen, he said (to him), "You are going to people of a (Divine) Book. First of all invite them to worship Allah (alone) and when they come to know Allah, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers in every day and night; and if they start offering these prayers, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, the Zakat. And it is to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them; and if they obey you in that, take Zakat from them and avoid (don't take) the best property of the people as Zakat."” 378
★ Az-Zakat teaches Charity and Spending Money to help community and needy:
Spending in way of Allah swt is promoted and it’s a great business deal: “Say, "Indeed, my Lord extends provision for whom He wills of His servants and restricts [it] for him. But whatever thing you spend [in His cause] – He will compensate it; and He is the best of providers."”[Saba 34:39]. Allah swt considered the money spent in helping poor and needs as a loan towards Allah, which He will repay: (إِن تُقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا يُضَاعِفْهُ لَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ شَكُورٌ حَلِيمٌ) “If you lend to Allah a goodly loan (i.e. spend in Allah’s Cause) He will double it for you, and will forgive you. And Allah is Most Ready to appreciate and to reward, Most Forbearing,” 379
Needy and poor has share in one’s wealth, this is considered right of poor in our wealth. Allah swt said: (وَفِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ) “And in their properties there was the right of the beggar, and the Mahroom (the poor who does not ask the others)” 380
- Charity (Zakat) should be given on Business Income: [See al-Anaam 6:141-142]
- Charity (Zakat) should be given on Personal Wealth: [See at-Tauba 9:103&11&60, 73:20]]
- Charity to be given on what is in excess on one’s need: [See al-Baqara, 2:219]
★ Az-Zakat teaches that we give good items in charity and not the throw away things:
The true test of character is when person gives away things in charity that he loves the most. Usually people love the money and it’s hard to give it away. Similarly, when we give away other items in charity then it is asked to give good usable things. It is not appropriate that when we are doing housing cleaning we give all throw away items in charity. Allah (swt) said: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَنفِقُواْ مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّا أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُم مِّنَ الأَرْضِ وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُواْ الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُم بِآخِذِيهِ إِلاَّ أَن تُغْمِضُواْ فِيهِ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ – “O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allah is Rich (Free of all wants), and Worthy of all praise” 381
★ Az-Zakat teaches that we Give Charity even in self poverty:
And even when you yourself are facing difficulties and poverty and. Allah (swt) said: وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ فِي السَّرَّاء وَالضَّرَّاء - “And march forth in the way (which leads to) forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for Al-Muttaqoon (the pious). Those who spend (in Allah’s Cause - deeds of charity, alms, etc.) in prosperity and in adversity..” 382
★ Az-Zakat’s impact on Society:
Everything we own and we posses is a نعمة (blessing) from Allah (swt). While Allah (swt) has blessed us with so many think we must not forget that there are others who are not so lucky. In fact, all of our wealth is a test from Allah (swt). He gave it to us to see if we will elevate our character and become selfless to help other unfortunate or not. That is why Quran talks a lot about “انفاق في سبيل الله” meaning spend in the way of Allah (swt), which includes both Charity (صدقة) and Zakat (زكواة). Zakat is a type of Charity (صدقة) but obligatory.
The reason for such emphasis on spending in way of Allah (swt) is that human are often self-fish and they have narrow view. They can’t see beyond their immediate circumstances. When they get wealth, they become extraordinary self-fish. They want to spend all of it over their own self desires. Even though they have enough luxury but they keep seeking more and more. They see poverty around them; they see poor not attending schools; they see people sleeping in parks; they see orphans begging on street, but it doesn’t affect them as they are too busy with their own entertainments.
Hence, in a society the rich keep becoming richer and poor keeps becoming poorer. Poor is deprived of food, shelter, proper clothing and education. Such deprivation when spread to masses can cause complete anarchy and disruption in the society.
★ Other impacts,
- Promotes social interactions between rich and poor
- Reduces self-fishness and creates harmony
- Liberates the society from usury (الربا)
- Az-Zakat’s impact on one who receives it
As-Sawm “الصوم” – Fast in month of Ramadan
As-Sawm “الصوم” is fourth pillar of Islam. As-Sawm (الصوم) means fasting. In Shariah term Fasting means abstinence during the day from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. Fasting is obligatory on every sane and adult (عاقل و بالغ) Muslim except excused for weak and sick.
Fasting is obligatory on Muslims similar to nations of all other Prophets before Islam, but they may have fasted differently. Quran mentions Zakariya (Zacharias, father of John and patron of Maryam – mother of Jesus) fasted by remaining quiet for three days384. Today, we see people from much religion fast e.g. Jews, Christians, Hindus and Buddhist, but they may have changed it from its original form to suit their desires. Quran said:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
2:183 “you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious)” [Al-Baqarah]
Muslims are encouraged to fast throughout the year. However, in Month of Ramadan (رمضان) which is ninth month of lunar calendar, fasting is made obligatory. During this month, Muslim fast entire month from dawn to dusk and they do not eat even a grain of food nor do they drink drop of water. Fasting is more than abstinence from eating or drinking. During the fast Muslims are commanded to follow all aspect of Islamic Shariah more than their normal day. Hence, they strictly prohibited from committing any of sinful acts, e.g. lying, deception, cheating, backbiting, jealousy, harming, fighting and killing etc (even though these are not allowed any ways). In addition, during the fasting person cannot be involved in intimacy or sexual relationship with wife. .
As-Sawm “الصوم” (Fasting) is a total package of very highly effective training program that last the entire month and includes vigorous exercises and lessons. It is test of true faith, patience, perseverance, honesty and obedience of Allah swt. A person who fast for entire month and perform all prescribed act of this program is rewarded with unmatched physical, mental and spiritual healing and fitness.
As-Sawm “الصوم” (Fasting) is an act of worship that is purely for Allah (swt), unlike other act of worship that includes outward actions, fasting is mainly a test of inward character. During fasting person remains steadfast and honest to voluntarily go under such rigorous exercise. If person wants, he can easily eat or drink in private, but what keeps his away is the unflinching commitment to Allah swt and his firm faith in Him and Judgment Day. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (pbuh) as saying: “Allah, the Majestic and the Exalted, said: Every act of the son of Adam is for him except fasting. It is done for My sake, and I will give a reward for it. By Allah in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, the breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to Allah than the fragrance of musk” 385
As-Sawm “الصوم” (Fasting) also creates an immense impact on society and transforms the entire system into God fearing, righteous, peace loving, honest, sincere and sinless society – ironically all of that literally overnight! A pious person becomes more pious, a liar stop lying, bad mouthed person becomes charming, a person who usually don’t pray starts praying 5 times day, person who usually don’t read Quran starting reading it and even go beyond to learn tafsir (exegesis), people who pray short prayers now pray long Taraveh (تراويح) prayers every night, person who takes bribe stops immediately from bribes, arrogant policeman start helping citizens, people prepare lots of food and feed them to poor and needy at breakfast, zakat and charity is distributed heavily, people starts to hunt for needy to give them cloths and utensils and money, feeling of love and brotherhood becomes widespread. Even the government chips in with immense gesture of generosity and forgiveness by granting money and freeing prisoners. Mosques are truly reformed, where there are barely a row in Fajr in normal month, in Ramadan the mosques are flooded with people especially in Fajr and Isha386 where there is no room left in the mosques. People flock to mosque is very large numbers to pray and to learn the Deen.
No where on earth is seen such a transformation of society overnight. It is real and Muslims in their country witness this every year. Alas! This is only a glimpse into how a true Islamic Society should be, but glimpse it is Muslims all over the world loves it and eagerly waits for it entire year!
No wonder Allah (swt) asked us to be grateful and thankful for giving us such a blessing. This blessing of Ramadan can only be understood from those who live it and see the transformation of society every year. Therefore, Allah (swt) said:
وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
2:185 “.. and that you must magnify Allah (i.e. to say Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar; Allah is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadan and Shawwal) for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.” [Al-Baqarah]
Hence, the level of Tawqa (تقوي) and Iman (ايمان) that should be part of Muslim’s normal attire is easily achieved in this blessed month. There is a special reason behind such an atmosphere in this month. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained.” 387
Another special blessing of this month is expiation from sins. A person who performs all act of fasting properly for whole month of Ramadan is cleansed from all sins. The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Whoever established prayers on the night of Qadr out of sincere faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven; and whoever fasts in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” 388
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH AS-SAWN - FASTING
Each of the components of as-Sawm mentioned earlier has it own impact on our character, but due to page limit our main focus is to discuss fasting in general sense and as total package of one month’s training program for revival of true Islamic values.
★ As-Sawn teaches At-Taqwa “التقوي” (fear of Allah, piety)
Main objective of fasting is to attain at-Taqwa (التقوي), as Allah (swt) said: لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ “that you may become the pious”389. When one reviews lists of all the impacts of fasting on our character and on society in general, it will become evident that fasting drastically increases level of at-Taqwa.
★ As-Sawn teaches Strengthening of Iman
Muslim fast by believing in Allah (swt) that He will one day reward him for obeying His command. He put his trust in Allah and honestly observe all acts of fasting, he refrain from eating, drinking and all other prohibited act. He truly believes that by abstaining from these acts he not only earns Allah’s blessing and pleasure, but this abstinence is for his benefit. It will benefit him here on earth and it will also benefit him in here after. As one can see the benefits of fasting are numerous.
Hence, Muslim fast whole month seeking Allah’s pleasure, and abstain from prohibitions in public and private. He survives temptations and desires purely to meet his commitment with Allah (swt). His at-Taqwa (fear of Allah swt) keeps him away from all evil and sins.
This is a state of profound and unshakable belief in Allah (swt) that despite all the temptation and desires he remains steadfast.
★ As-Sawn is A high rewarding Ibadah (عبادة) especially for sake of Allah (swt)
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “…Allah says about the fasting person), 'He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times.”390
★ As-Sawn teaches Honesty
Fasting is an act of worship that is exclusively between person and Allah (swt), as unlike other act of worship where actions are outward and visible, fasting is merely abstaining from activities, i.e. not eating, not drinking, not have sexual relationship. If he wishes he can eat or drink in private and no one will notice. Hence, it is an act where only Allah (swt) knows if the person is honest or not. Hence, fasting teaches honesty even when no one is watching person still believes that Allah (swt) is watching him, and the angles are watching him writing all his actions. Hence, even in his private he behaves and abstains from any unlawful act.
★ As-Sawn is A True Tazkiya (تزكية النفس)
Fasting is the act of worship that truly purifies the person both internally and externally. A person who person fasting properly attains high level of at-Taqwa (التقوي) and al-Iman (الايمان). He learns honesty, patience, perseverance, striving in touch conditions, living without basic necessities of food, and control sexual desires etc. Hence, from every aspect it transforms the person.
★ As-Sawn teaches Protection against sins and evil
Fasting is a shield against evil. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, ‘I am fasting.’…”391. So, if any one tries to fight or use foul language with a person who is fasting, he can simply say “I am fasting, so kindly leave me alone!” Hence, this will defuse the scene and avoid any argument. A person who is fasting knows its prohibit to commit any sexual activity or sinful activity, hence he stays away from it and the fear of Allah (swt) forces him to keep away from any unlawful act.
★ As-Sawn teaches Patience & Will power
Fasting seriously test the patience and will power of a person. A person fast 15 hours or more and refrain every temptation of sin and unlawful activity, and he repeats this exercise for entire month. In the beginning person is strong and he can fast for few days, but as the days progress and he reaches near the last 10 days, fasting become more severe. As by then he has become weak. Twenty days of fasting takes its toll on person.
However, as the person fast more days, his level of Taqwa and Iman continues to rise. Even though he becomes weak, he draws his will power from stronger Iman. Last, ten days of Ramadan test him further, as Muslims prays whole nights in search of Lailatul Qadar (ليلة القدر). Now, not only person is refraining from eating during day time, he is now deprived of sleep! He continues this exercise of very long prayers for last 10 days and remains steadfast in his will. By the time this month ends Muslim receive serious training in learning to control his desires by exercising strong will power. This is a very severe test of patience and will that only good Muslims are able to pass.
★ As-Sawn is highly effective training for whole month
★ As-Sawn teaches Survival Training
The training receives during the Month of program is no less than any other survival training. It includes depriving of food, drink and not taking meal for long hours. It includes seclusion in the mosque with no sexual relationship with wife to teach self discipline. It includes deprivation of nightly sleep and very long tiring prayers that causes fatigue. It includes working during the day for business activities despite of weakness, fasting, and sleep deprives and fatigue. It toughens the person mentally, physically and spiritually. It builds very strong will power to remain calm, patience and steadfast under most stressful conditions.
★ As-Sawn teaches Physical Fitness
One of value of fasting is the physical fitness. Fasting clears out the intestine and person usually lose weight during the month. Prophet (pbuh) encourages us to fast few times every month, although they are voluntary. But if one follows Prophetic advice and fast few times every month and fast month of Ramadan, he will certainly remain fit (and not fats!). The Prophet (pbuh) said: صـُومـُوتصحُّـوا – “Keep fast and you will become healthy”392.
★ As-Sawn teaches Compassion for hungry
A person fast whole month and feel the hunger. He abstains from food and drink whole day for entire month. He goes out to work while he is fasting. He works while he is hungry, thirsty and weak. He deprives himself from sexual act with wife (often poor people are unable to have spouse). He now feels what a poor hungry person feels. He becomes more compassionate to help the poor because now he understands hunger himself due to this self-experience.
★ As-Sawn teaches Generosity
During this month Muslims become very generous and outpour the charity in abundance. They follow the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad. Abdullah bin Abbas reported: Whenever Ramadan use to come, Prophet (pbuh) use to release all the prisoners and he use to give something to every (سائل) person who asked for help.”393
★ As-Sawn teaches Self Control over desires and temptations
★ As-Sawn teaches Transformed Society
Fasting is a collective exercise. The entire population of Muslims fast together every where on earth. Muslims celebrate beginning of the month with thanks and prayers to Allah (swt). As soon as the month starts the whole atmosphere is filled with the spirit of piety and virtuousness. This month brings so much blessing for everyone that Muslims congratulate each other for reaching this blessed month. Muslims becomes very warmth and the air is filled with deep feeling of unity and brotherhood. Each person tries his level best to avoid any sinful act. Level of Iman and Taqwa rises to newer level. An average Muslim becomes very pious, and the pious Muslim becomes symbol of righteousness. The behavior of common person completely transforms. Zakat and charity floods out of wallets and save deposits. People hunts for needy and poor to give them clothing, food and money. Even the person with weak character feels ashamed to commit any sinful activity in public. Even the children avoid eating or drinking in public.
Allah (swt) shows further mercy to Muslims by showering his blessing. A small deed gets a benefit of bigger deed. This gives big incentive to common population to go all out to loot as much good deeds in this month as possible.
This transformation of whole system occurs almost instantaneously. The moment Ramadan starts good Muslims all over the world transform themselves into very righteous person. They immediately give us sinful acts and they seek Allah’s blessing and pleasure. Such sudden transformation of society overnight is something that is not witnessed in any other system (Even though one may admit that as soon as the Ramadan is over, they return back to their ignorant act. But that’s mainly the weaker Muslims).
Ramadan is a month that gives opportunity to all habitants of earth to witness how a true Islamic System would look like, if it is allowed to flourish. And unfortunately, now a days due to non-existence of Islamic government this system is not as well-protected by Muslims as it deserve, but just a glimpse of it is heartfelt. The flock of Muslims that suddenly appears in the mosque for prayers, the amount of goods and charity that gets distributed this month, the elevated behaviors of average Muslim within their community and the general rise in level of Taqwa and Iman are some of the common patterns that drastically change in this month.
★ As-Sawn teaches Revival of Islamic Values, year after year
Ramadan is the month of revival of true Islamic values. Every year it transforms many Muslims. It gives opportunity to an average Muslim to change his life. It provides a training program for one whole month. Muslims enter this training program and perform all parts of this program for one whole month. They learn to live with little food or drink. They learn to control their sexual desires. They learn to abstain in absolute sense from lie, deception, cheating, fraud or any sinful act. They go all out to help needy and provide charity. They perform long prayers at night to thank Allah (swt). They suffer from sleep deprive but still attend the work next morning. Everyone is full of piety and righteousness, and does his best to practice true Islamic values. And they maintain this routine for entire month
Lots of Muslims are able to succeed from this vigorous training program. They continue with their piety, righteousness, good moral values, good ethics, charity and prayers even after the month is over. Others, who are not as fortunate, fall back into error. But there is still hope for them. There will be another Ramadan next year and the year after. Ramadan will continue to come every year to remind them that there is another way of life, a way to their success and a way that leads to the pleasure of Allah (swt). A way that is better than all other ways known to man.
Al-Hajj “الحج” – The Pilgrimage to Mecca
Al-Hajj “الحج” (pilgrimage of Makkah) is the fifth pillar of Islam. Al-Hajj “الحج” in Arabic language means intention of visit the holy place (زيارة). In Shariah term it means visiting Holy Makkah for the purpose of performing worship and rituals prescribed under al-Hajj. It is obligatory on every adult eligible Muslim once in a life time. It is only obligatory if the person has enough physical and financial ability to perform the al-Hajj (pilgrimage).
There are two aspect of eligibility of al-Hajj (فرضية الحج) that must be fully understood 394:
- First, it is only obligatory on person who can afford it financially and has physical ability to bear the burden of travel and harsh conditions. i.e. وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً – “And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Kabah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for ones conveyance, provision and residence)”
- Second, if someone does have financial and physical ability and he is not facing any other genuine reason then al-Hajj is absolutely mandatory. i.e. وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ – “and whoever disbelieves (i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allah), then Allah stands not in need of any of the Alameen (mankind and jinns).” Meaning that whoever doesn’t perform al-Hajj after all the means available to him, then this is an act of Kufr.
Makkah is the blessed land loved by Allah (swt), who honored it to such heights that He (swt) established his house in this blessed city towards which all Muslim face five times a day for their worship and prayers of Allah (swt). Allah (swt) said:وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ فَلاَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي – “And from wherever you go out [for prayer], turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] may be, turn your faces toward it in order that the people will not have any argument against you, except for those of them who commit wrong; so fear them not but fear Me.” 395
It is the city of شعائر الله (signs of Allah) and it possess آيَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ (clear signs of Allah), it is a city of معجزات (miracles), it is the city of peace and prosperity, it is the city of blessing and mercy, it is a city of Ibrahim (pbuh)’s prayers and struggle, it is the city of Ismail (as) ‘s obedience, it is the city of our Master and the noble and most beloved Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), it is the city where Islam was first revealed to Mohammad (pbuh), it is the city where Muslims sacrificed their lives and wealth and everything just to say “There is no God but Allah”, it is the city which revolution against oppression started, it is the city where foundation of Tawheed stands, it is the city where the two stones from heaven are placed (حجرة أسود و مقام ابراهيم), it is the city where miraculous Zam Zam (زم زم) still runs, it is city of as-Safa and al-Marwa (الصفأ و المروة) which are signs of Allah (شعائر الله ), it is the city where Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) the father of all Muwahideen (famously known as أمام المواحدين) sacrificed his son Ismail for the sake of Allah (swt) and also stoned Satan, it is the same city that honor our Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) who conquered it without a drop of blood being shed, is the same city where once lived the army of Allah and the honorable Companions and serviceman of Messenger of Allah (swt).
This is the city that all Muslims from all over the world visit with only one purpose and one identity. They all seek pleasure of Allah (swt) and they all carry one united identity of being a Muslim. They carry the passport of Tawheed and they wear the dress of Iman. They come here for to show their exclusive and unconditional allegiance to Allah (swt) and seek forgive from Him. In this blessed city, Allah (swt) listen to all prayers, he is The Beneficent and The Merciful. He accepts every one’s prayer and He forgives all past sins of the person who perform his duties with wholehearted devotion. The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Whoever performs Hajj for Allah's pleasure and does not have sexual relations with his wife, and does not do evil or sins then he will return (after Hajj free from all sins) as if he were born anew”[Sahih al-Bukhari].
History of al-Hajj
Al-Hajj “الحج” is Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh). Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) was born approx 4 thousand years back in a city in Iraq where industry and trade were advanced. However, idol worship was also common and his father was their preacher. When Ibrahim (pbuh) grew up he couldn’t understand why people worship idols who neither can speak nor can they move. After lot of reason with himself he realized that only one God is capable of creating such a mammoth system. Hence, Allah (swt) gave him prophet hood and asked him to submit (إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ), he immediately accepted such an honor (قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ) and accepted Islam396.
He reasoned with them that these idols cannot really given life or death, neither they can do any benefit nor cause any harm, nor they are god. Later he openly told them they he doesn’t believe in idols being god. As he said: إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ – “6:79 Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism, i.e. worshipping none but Allah Alone) and I am not of Al-Mushrikoon.” 397
Like always happened to Nobel Prophets, they became angry with him and threatened to kill him. Ibrahim (pbuh) to teach them that these idols are just statues, and he broke them all except one. When people knew about this they took him to the King who questioned Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh). He replied pointing the remaining idol that he did it, he broke all of them and they should ask him (idol). Ibrahim (pbuh) then gave them sermon and ask them to accept Islam and submit to Allah (swt)398. Ibrahim (pbuh) entered in to lengthy discussion with the king to explain him concept of one and only God. The king said he too can give like and death to people (meaning power to reproduce and power to kill). Ibrahim (pbuh) replied that his Allah (swt) brings out Sun from east, and if King is so powerful he should bring it out from west. Listening this King became astonished and was overwhelmed with Ibrahim (pbuh)’s argument399. He gave punishment to Ibrahim to be burned in fire. When they forced Ibrahim into fire, the fire miraculously calmed down400. This couldn’t shake the firm belief of Ibrahim (pbuh) in Tawheed but his people did not accept his guidance.
Ibrahim (pbuh) left his city and migrated to Palestine. Later with his wife Sara he went to Egypt where the king tried to trap them but due to the prayer of Sara (as) they were protected. The King then gave his daughter Hajira (as) to Sara as slave. Sara (as) herself decided to marry Hajira (هاجره) to Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh). Ibrahim (pbuh) returned to Palestine. With Hajira (as) he had one son Ismail then when he was Ibrahim was 80 years old401, however Sara (as) did not had the son which caused family problems. Prophet Ibrahim (as) took Hajira (as) and Ismail (as) to a journey in Makkah and he decided to leave them there. When he was returning his wife Hajira asked him why he is leaving them alone there, he replied that this is the order of Allah (swt). When his wife heard that she completely obliged to will of Allah (swt) as said that Allah will not waste us.
Even those Ibrahim (pbuh) left his family alone in Makkah but his heart was with them. He kept prayer following verses:
رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ
14:37 "O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Kabah at Makkah); in order, O our Lord, that they may perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks.
He prayed that he established the house of Allah by Allah’s order and seek Allah’s mercy that He guide people to come to worship Allah and perform as-Salat, and fill the heart of people with al-Iman, at-Taqwa and love of Allah. Allah (swt) accepted the prayers of our father Ibrahim (pbuh) and blessed this place with such honor that the Muslims from entire world now decent in this city to perform al-Hajj and al-Umrah. And there is no lack of fruit in this city where once it was absolutely barren and deserted land.
Little water and dates that Ibrahim (pbuh) left with his family ended soon, and both Hajira and Ismail felt thirsty. When baby Ismail cried then Hajira use to run between as-Safa and al-Marwa (a small desert hillocks) so she can locate any water in this desert but to no avail. When she ran between these two hillocks 7 times then she heard a sound that was due to Angle Jibreel (as) hitting the ground where Ismail was lying on the sand. The water came out on that spot which is now known as Zam Zam (زم زم). The word زم زم means “stop stop” which was proclaimed from Hajira when the water wouldn’t stop. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) told us that his water has cure (شفأ) and blessings in it.
Allah (swt) liked the motherhood of bibi Hajiri so much so that he declared as-Safa and al-Marwa (الصفأ و المروة) as the signs of Allah (شعائر الله ), and He declared that all Muslims until end of time repeat the Sunnah of bibi Hajiri as a ritual of al-Hajj rites to honor the best mother. This is the sign of respect and honor of her love for her child and the prayers she made to Allah (swt) during the harsh time she lived to protect her child.
Later a tribe names Banu Jurham (بنو جرهم) settled in Makkah with the permission of bibi Hajiri. When Ismail (pbuh) grew up, his father Ibrahim (pbuh) saw in Prophetic dream that Allah (swt) commanded him to sacrifice his only son for the sake of Allah (swt). Ibrahim (pbuh) who came through so many tests and pass them all (including sitting in fire, and leaving his family alone in Makkah) called labaik (لبيك, obedient response to Allah’s call). He neither felt sad nor nervous. He immediately went from Palestine to Makkah to meet his son Ismail (pbuh) and told him Allah’s command. The obedient son gave the famous answer, the story is in Quran: فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْيَ قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنِّي أَرَى فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي أَذْبَحُكَ فَانظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَى قَالَ يَا أَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاء اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ – “And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: "O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you (offer you in sacrifice to Allah), so look what you think!" He said: "O my father! Do that which you are commanded, Insha Allah (if Allah will), you shall find me of As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.)."”402 .
Hence, the father and son gave a lesson of unmatched submission, sacrifice and patience to all man-kind to come. When Ibrahim (pbuh) was running the knife, his son was replaced by a sheep and Allah (swt) revealed to him that he accepted his and his son’s obedience and the dream was the trial which they have passed. Ibrahim was honored by Allah (swt) in big way: وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ - سَلَامٌ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ - كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ - “We left for him (a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. Salamun (peace) be upon Ibrahim (Abraham)!" Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsinoon (good-doers”403.
Hence, the promise of Allah ( وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ) was fulfilled, and the tradition of Ibrahim and his son Ismail (pbuh) is practiced by all Muslims to date, and they sacrifice an animal as a part of their Al-Hajj “الحج”.
Ibrahim (pbuh) was the leader of all Muslims in his time ( إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا) and he was supported by three other noble prophets:
- His nephew Prophet Lot (لوط, pbuh) whom Ibrahim (pbuh) placed in Jordan,
- His elder son Ismail (أسمائيل, pbuh) who was placed in Makkah and Prophet Mohammad is from his linage,
- His younger son Ishaq (اسحاق, pbuh) who was placed in Palestine in between Shaam (شام) and Egypt. The son of Ishaq (pbuh) was Yaqoob (يعقوب, pbuh) also known as Israel (اسرائيل) and grandson was Yousuf (يوسف, pbuh). Through them Islam reached Egypt.
Ibrahim (pbuh) placed all of them in strategic cities covering a large landscape in all trade routes between Iran, Iraq and Egypt. All of them taught Islam to the nations of their time. From Makkah Ibrahim (pbuh) with his son Ismail (pbuh) continued their efforts to spread Islam. When Allah (swt) asked them to establish house of Allah (swt) they accepted this responsibility with honor and build the holy Kaba (كعبة). Angle Jibreel also brought Hajr Aswad (حجر أسود, black stone) from heaven which was placed in Kaba. Prophet (pbuh) said about this stone: “Hajr Aswad is a stone sent from heavens which was while like milk, but people’s sin made it black” 405
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ - فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا
3:96-97 Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and guidance for Al-Alameen (the mankind and jinns). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham); whosoever enters it, he attains security.[Ale-Imran]
Muslims kiss this stone during their Tawaf (طواف) of Kaba. However, the stone it is just a stone with no other significance other than it’s from heaven. Abis bin Rabia narrated a story: “Umar came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said "No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit anyone nor harm anyone. Had I not seen Allah's Apostle kissing you I would not have kissed you."” 406
مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (place of Ibrahim) is the stone that Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) stand upon to reach higher while he was building the Kaba. This is considered as a sign of Allah (swt) as mentioned in verse above. It reminds us of the magmatic job Ibrahim and Ismail (pbuh) did by building the House of Allah.
This house of Allah (swt) was declared place of mercy, worship and peace (فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا). Hence, no war or fighting is allowed in House of Allah. Whoever enters this house is safe and given full protection of Allah (swt).
This was the time in history which is the birth of Al-Hajj “الحج” (pilgrimage of Makkah). After the construction of Kaba was done, Allah (swt) called on Ibrahim (pbuh) to call on to people to come for Al-Hajj “الحج”:
وَأَذِّن فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَى كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ
22:27 And proclaim to mankind the Hajj (pilgrimage). They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, they will come from every deep and distant (wide) mountain highway (to perform Hajj).
This was the start of world wide movement of Ibrahim (pbuh) to call people from every corner of the world to Tawheed and Islam. This place was declared house of Allah (swt) where people will come to perform their holy pilgrimage to worship Allah (وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً).
It was said that Ibrahim said: “O Lord, how can I convey this to people when my voice will not reach them.” Allah (swt) replied: “Call them and We will convey it.” So Ibrahim stood up and said, “O mankind! Your Lord has established a House so come on pilgrimage to it.” The response came from everyone in the cities, deserts and countryside, and those whom Allah has decreed will make the pilgrimage, until the Day of Resurrection and will came saying: (لبيك الهم لبيك) “At Your service, O Allah, at Your service.”407
The life of Ibrahim (pbuh) and his services to spread Deen of Allah and the sacrifices he made in way of Allah are magmatic. He is a symbol of resistance, patience, perseverance, obedience and unfettered allegiance to Allah (swt). This is the very reason he was granted title of خليل الله (friend of Allah), the idol smasher, and the Imam of Muwahideen (أمام المواحدين) of all true believers of Tawheed (المواحد).
It is this Sunnah of Ibrahim (pbuh) that all Muslims follow today and it’s a fifth strong pillar of Islam. And as per the promise of Allah (swt) people from all corner of world descend on Makkah to attend this blessed event.
الحج – Days of Hajj
Following are the topics with respect to the Journey of hajj:
- العمرة Umrah: Minor Hajj involving Tawaf and Sa’ee
- Tawaf-e-Ziyarat (طواف زيارة): The initial visit to House of Allah in Makkah
- Sa’ee (السعي): Walk between As-Safa and Al-Marwa (الصفأ و المروة)
- يوم التروية: Eight Dhul Hijjah – The first day in Mina.
- يوم العرفة: Nine Dhul Hijjah – Day of Arafat (Day of al-Hajj)
- ليلة الجمع: Nine Dhul Hijjah – Night stay at Muzdalfah
- يوم النحر: Ten Dhul Hijjah – Day of Sacrifice and Eid al-Dhuha
- النحر : Sacrifice of Animal in following Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh)
- رمي الجمرة العقبة: Stoning of Satan at three stations in Mina
- الحلق والتقصير: Shaving of head
- وقوف المناء: Three days stay worshiping Allah (swt) in Mina
- طواف الوداع: Tawaf-al-Wida The farewell visit to House of Allah before leaving Makkah.
Although this paper doesn’t deal with explaining details of each of these rites of al-Hajj, but each one of them creates a deep deep impact on person’s character and increases his at-taqwa (التقوي), at-tazkiya (التزكية), humbleness and selflessness. And it immensely broadens the view of simple Muslims when they see an ocean of Muslims descending into a small place purely for the sake of Allah, to accept his all-Superiority and to submit to His Commands and Law. It is an event to demonstrate Universal Muslim Brotherhood and their proclamation of Unity under the flag of Tawheed and Islam.
MORALS LEARNED THROUGH AL-HAJJ - PILGRIMAGE
★ MORALS & impact on our character
Journey of al-Hajj is filled with all kinds of benefits to which Quran states:لِيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ – “That they may witness things that are of benefit to them (i.e. reward of Hajj in the Hereafter, and also some worldly gain from trade, etc.).”409 To explain benefits of each step of al-Hajj will consume a volume, we will focus briefly on main points:
★ Al-Hajj teaches unfettered obedience of Allah & Prophet (pbuh)
The performing of al-Hajj is following the Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh). The entire life of Ibrahim (pbuh) is a symbol of true obedience to Allah (swt). His belief in Allah was unshakable. He was put to many tests and trials during his life, but none could shake his resolve. As we have explained in the story of Ibrahim (pbuh) earlier that he left his family with young kid in Makkah in obedience to Allah’s command. Later, he builds the Kaba and established al-Hajj. These are things that when the order came from Allah (swt) he may or may not have fully comprehended them, but in his true obedience to Allah (swt) he did not hesitate a second to obey. Today, all of the Muslims and mankind owe it to Ibrahim (pbuh) and his son Ismail (pbuh) whose sacrifices, perseverance and prayers gave us an opportunity to live Deen of Allah (swt) and perform al-Hajj in obedience to Allah. Every aspect of al-Hajj reminds us of their sacrifices and obedience.
★ Al-Hajj teaches that Allah (swt) honour his friends and fulfil His promise
The sacrifices made by Ibrahim (pbuh) and the obedience he showed towards Allah (swt) earned him many titles. One of them was خليل الله (friend of Allah). Allah (swt) bestowed his full honor on Ibrahim (pbuh): وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ - سَلَامٌ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ - كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ - “We left for him (a goodly remembrance) among generations (to come) in later times. Salamun (peace) be upon Ibrahim (Abraham)!" Thus indeed do We reward the Muhsinoon (good-doers” .410
The promise that Allah (swt) made i.e. (وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ) was fulfilled, and the tradition of Ibrahim and his son Ismail (pbuh) is practiced by all Muslims to date, and they sacrifice an animal as a part of their Al-Hajj “الحج”. Ibrahim (pbuh) is considered the founding father of the resistance movement against Shirk (شرك, associating partners with Allah), Dhulm (ظلم, oppression), Fahishat (فاحشات, obscenity), Zina (زنا, adultery), and Jahal (جهل, ignorance). He was honored to be father of many noble Prophets, including Prophet Moses (pbuh) and Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). He was honored to build the Kaba, the House of Allah on earth. He was honored to established one of the founding pillars of Islam, al-Hajj. He was honored to start the first ever celebration in Islamic history known as “Eid al-Dhuha”.
Allah (swt) loved Ibrahim (pbuh) so much that He himself witnessed the sincerity of Ibrahim and declared him (حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا) - “he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism - to worship none but Allah Alone).”411
Promise of Allah (swt): This is a lesson for all mankind. That when Allah (swt) promises He never goes back from His promise. These are words of Allah and words of Allah (swt) are an Ultimate Truth that doesn’t change. Allah (swt) made promise to all mankind, i.e. (وَعَدَ اللّهُ الْحُسْنَى) “Allah has promised good (i.e. Paradise)”412 and then said (وَعْدَ اللّهِ حَقًّا وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللّهِ قِيلاً) “Allah’s Promise is the Truth, and whose words can be truer than those of Allah? (Of course, none).” 413
Here we must mention that Allah (swt) made Two promises to entire mankind and Jinns. They are with two kinds of people:
- Those who believe in Allah and submits to His order: To them Allah (swt) made this promise: وَعَدَ اللّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَمَسَاكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ وَرِضْوَانٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ أَكْبَرُ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ – “Allah has promised to the believers -men and women, - Gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein forever, and beautiful mansions in Gardens of Adn (Eden Paradise). But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme success”414
- Those who deny Him His right: to them Allah (swt) made this promise: وَعَدَ الله الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا هِيَ حَسْبُهُمْ وَلَعَنَهُمُ اللّهُ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيمٌ – “Allah has promised the hypocrites; men and women, and the disbelievers, the Fire of Hell, therein shall they abide. It will suffice them. Allah has cursed them and for them is the lasting torment.”415
Allah (swt) has promised us that we will all return to Him and He will recreate us like He created us the first time (إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا وَعْدَ اللّهِ حَقًّا إِنَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ) . And there is no doubt that Allah (swt) will gather us in Day of Judgment to take accountability, where He will question us all we did in this world. Thus, we make this prayers for all man kind:
رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ - رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ النَّاسِ لِيَوْمٍ لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ
3:8 (They say): "Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower." 3:9 Our Lord! Verily, it is You Who will gather mankind together on the Day about which there is no doubt. Verily, Allah never breaks His Promise".
★ Al-Hajj restores religion of Ibrahim and abrogates practices of dark ages
Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) builds the Kaba and raised the banner of Tawheed and Islam. He established al-Hajj and taught people how to worship one God. However, after him and Ismail passed away people slowly returned to dark ages. Idol worshiping became common, and people made the idol of very man Ibrahim who was once the idol smasher and spent his whole life to explain people that idol worshiping is a Shirk.
By the time of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) they installed hundreds of idol around and inside Kaba. They called them Lat, Manat, Hubal, Nasr, Yaghus, Uzza, Isaaf, and Naela etc. These idols were supposedly idols of real noble people. Besides idols they worshiped other things like stars and planets that they see in skies, they worshiped jinns and ghosts, they worshipped spirits (روح) of their forefathers. If nothing was available then they took stone and worshiped stone. Umar Khattab once narrated while eating a date; he said that they use to worship dates! And they he laughed that how stupid it was to worship something that we eat.
The holy Hajj of Ibrahim also turned into a place of ar-Riya (رياء, show-off) where people will come and brag about themselves. More than worship of one Allah, it was a fan fair. Poets and speakers from various tribes exaggerated the courage, honour, power and generosity. They completed in ar-Riya (رياء) and their entire act were show-off to get name and fame. Their events were filled with singing, drinking alcohol, obscenity, and adultery where there was hardly any chance of attaining any at-Taqwa.
They worshipped (طواف) around Kaba absolutely naked, man and woman. They said this is how they will appear before Allah in judgement day, so let’s worship in same state. When they sacrificed an animal they will spill the blood of animal on walls of Kaba, as if Allah (swt) needed the blood of their sheep. They also fought during these four sacred months, which was declared by Ibrahim (pbuh) as sacred. Some time they self-impose restrictions on them selves, and would stop talking. The entire system was chaotic and lived in dark ages.
Thus, when Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) became victories and returned to Makkah he restored the al-Hajj to same state as it was before dark ages. He also raised the same banner of Tawheed against shirk and idol worshipers as Ibrahim (pbuh) did. And he also called people to come for al-Hajj similar to how his father Ibrahim (pbuh) called people to this sacred place. Above all, he abolished idol-worshiping. He destroyed three hundred sixty idols in and around Kaba. And while he was smashing them he was chanting following verses : 417
Islam prohibited all these rituals of dark ages. Before Islam they use to add to At-Talbiya word “الا شريكاً هو لكَ تملكهُ وما مالك”. Islam removed these words of Shirk. Islam taught that Allah (swt) doesn’t want the meat or the blood of animal; instead the sacrifice should be distributed to poor and needy. The lesson in sacrifice is to remember the obedience of Ibrahim/Ismail (pbuh) and follow them in obedience of Allah (swt). They use to fight in during days of al-Hajj when fighting was considered haram.. Islam declared it prohibited to fight in sanctity of Haram and during these months. The fanfare of ar-Riya, poetry and exaggeration was prohibited. All obscenity, nudity and rubbish talk was prohibited. Islam prohibited ar-Riya completely in any aspect of life; be it self-promotion, spectacle of generosity, and worshiping and prayers to impress others etc. In fact Islam declared ar-Riya to be a Shirk. They use to walk around the Kaba in absolute nakedness; Islam prohibited any such vulgar display. They use to travel for al-Hajj without any provisions and financial ability. Islam prohibited that and ordained that travel only when you have means and provisions. They would not earn any money or do any work when they were in al-Hajj, and expected someone else to feed them every day. Islam prohibited that and said there is no harm in making a living while on al-Hajj. Some of their pious would not speak or eat during al-Hajj. Islam taught that eating and speaking is not prohibited during al-Hajj. Islam taught that instead of denying speech and food, they should deny all obscenity, vulgar behavior, habits of lying, and bad mouthing . 418
Hence, Islam demolished all acts, customs and traditions of dark ages and restored the al-Hajj to be a place of peace and prosperity where people come from all over the world to submit to their Creator.
★ Al-Hajj teaches Unity can only be established under banner of Tawheed
Muslim all over the world attends this yearly event. These Muslims come from various countries. They have different cultures and customs. They speak many different languages. They eat very different type of food. They wear very different type of clothing. They have different level of knowledge and wisdom. They have varying degree of social status, some of them are rich others are not. Some of them are in position of power and government, others are ordinary citizens. Some of them are teachers, others students. Some of them are businessman, others do not have work.
The point is they are completely different in their demographics. But when they come to al-Hajj they have very common purpose. It’s a purpose to please their Lord. They speak different languages in their country, but when they travel towards Makkah, they have same slogan on their tongue:
لبيك اللهم لبيك، لبيك لا شريك لك لبيك، ان الحمد و نعمت لك و الملك، لا شريك لك
(I am) At your service, oh Allah (I am) at your service. (I am) at your service (and) none is partner with you. Indeed all praise is for Allah, and all provisions belong to Allah, and all kingdom (and land) belongs to Allah (swt). (And) there is none who partner with you.
They chant continuously this at-Talbiyah of Tawheed. With this they reject every aspect of as-Shirk and they disassociate any partner with Allah (swt), either in his Raboobiyah or Uloohiyah419. They accept that Kingdom (universe, earth, land, governance, and kingship) belongs only to Allah (swt). Allah decides and gives it to whoever he wishes to give it, and he takes it away from whoever he wishes to. None can question His wisdom.
And despite that they have different clothes in their country, when they come to Miqat (boundary where limits of ihram becomes compulsory) they all wear modest white clothing. By wearing this dress they denounce all signs of inequality, injustice, pride, arrogance, ego, self centeredness, racism, and prejudice. They all come in humbleness and humility towards Allah (swt) to seek His forgiveness.
And in their country they may have established separate mosque (as in some cultures), but when they come to al-Hajj there is only one Mosque. They all pray together, they stand in front of house of Allah together, they bow together, they prostrate together, and they ask for Allah’s forgiveness together. They live in al-Mina together for few days, they travel to al-Arafat together, they pray in al-Arafat together, they are lead by one Imam and gives them Khutba and they all listen to him, they stay at al-Muzdalfah together, they come back and stay in al-Mina for few days together. Hence, every aspect of al-Hajj is done in complete unity and harmony with all of them together.
Is that ironic or what? That Muslims that don’t live in their own land peacefully (today in 2008) are able to live peacefully in al-Hajj but they perform all acts of worship in unity and harmony without any fist or fight. What is that glue that gels them in such a mammoth event. In modern times more than 3 millions Muslim attend this event. That is an ocean of people from such diversified background, but absolutely no indiscipline and disunity.
So, what keeps them together? The answer is so easy. They started al-Hajj with at-Talbiyah with their chanting of words of Tawheed. And from that point forward every act they committed they committed under the banner of this chanting. They never stop chanting these words under the very end of al-Hajj. These words constantly remind that that they are here for sake of Allah and in His obedience. That they truly submit to Allah (swt) and accept His Order unconditionally, and they give unflinching allegiance to Allah (swt).
Hence, we learn that a unity that cannot be achieve by 1 billion Muslims on earth after they have tried all other means and methods. This unity is achieved once every year under the banner of Tawheed, without any force or power. This is a miracle of al-Hajj just as Ramadan transforms the society into an Islamic state over night, Al-Hajj unites the Ummah, literally over night!
So, brothers and sisters, if Ummah wants to unite all 57 odd Muslim dominant countries into a single United Nation, it can only be done under the banner of Tawheed. This is what al-Hajj teaches us.
★ Al-Hajj teaches Universal Muslim Brotherhood
★ Al-Hajj teaches Diversity (no race, no color, no language)
★ Al-Hajj teaches Equality
★ Al-Hajj teaches Sacrifice
★ Al-Hajj teaches Perseverance
★ Al-Hajj teaches Discipline
★ Al-Hajj teaches the atmosphere in Day of Judgment
END OF PART 4
PART 5 - HOW TO ATTAIN HIGH MORAL STANDARDS - Pillars of Islam & Ethics (5)
- Sahih Bukhari, Book #2 Iman, Hadees # 7, Sahih Muslim, Book #1 Iman, Hadees #1
- Quran, Chapter 3:41- Al-Imran (The Family of Imran).
- Qadar is really extension of Belief in Allah, as it is part of Asma wa sifat of Allah swt. However, it is exclusively put out by Prophet (ﷺ) to emphasize on its importance.
- Quran, Chapter 4:59 – An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 2:176 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 4:80 – An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 2:213 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 2:177, Al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 2:82, Al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 68:4, Al-Qalam
- Quran, Chapter 5:2, Al-Maida
- Quran, Chapter 2:32, Al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 2:165, Al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 49:13, Al-Hujarat
- Quran, Chapter 6:162 - Al-An'am (The Cattle)
- Quran, Chapter 8:6 - Al-Anfal
- Quran, Chapter 7:194 - al-Arraf
- Quran, Chapter 2:165 - al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 25:63 - Al-Furqan
- Sunnan Ibn Majah
- Sunnan at-Tirmidhi
- Masnud Imam Ahmed
- Sunnan at-Tirmidhi
- Sahih al-Muslim
- Quran, Chapter 2:80 - Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Haqiqatul Iman, Dr Tariq AbdelHaleem
- Quran, Chapter 2:186 - Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 3:139 - Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 46:13 - Al-Ahqaf
- Quran, Chapter 41:30 - Fussilat
- Quran, Chapter 2:256 – Al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 3:160 - Ale-Imran
- Quran, Chapter 3:73-74 - Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Al-aqaid Al-momin, Abu Bakar Al-Jazairi
- Based on Islamic Civilization and its principles and origin (اسلامي تهذيب اور اسكي أصول و مبادي), Abu Ala al-Mawdudi, page 171
- Quran, Chapter 21:26-30 - Al-Anbiya (The Prophets)
- Quran, Chapter 26:192-194, Al-Shuara
- Quran, Chapter 80:13-16 - Abasa
- Quran, Chapter 26:192-193 - Ash-Shu'ara
- Quran, Chapter 82:10-12 - Al-Infitaar
- The Messengers and the Messages, Umar S. al-Ashqar
- Quran, Chapter 57:25
- Quran, Chapter 4:164 – Al-Nisaa, وَرُسُلاً قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلاً لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ - “And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you”
- Masnud Imam Ahmed
- Quran, Chapter 4:136
- Quran, Chapter 16:36
- Quran, Chapter 35:24
- Quran, Chapter 2:151
- Quran, Chapter 4:13
- Quran, Chapter 4:14 :14
- Quran, Chapter 7:6-7
- Quran, Chapter 17:15
- Quran, Chapter 67:8
- Quran, Chapter 5:48 – Al-Maida
- Quran, Chapter 4:165
- Quran, 4:150-152 – Chapter Al-Nisa
- Based on Islamic Civilization and its principles and origin (اسلامي تهذيب اور اسكي أصول و مبادي) – Abu Ala al-Mawdudi
- Quran, Chapter 53:1-4 – An-Najm (The Star)
- Quran, Chapter 3:16 – Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 7:59 - Al-A'raf (The Heights)
- Quran, Chapter 29:16 - Al-'Ankabut (The Spider)
- Quran, Chapter 21:25 - Al-Ambiya (The Prophets)
- Quran, Chapter 21:92 - Al-Ambiya (The Prophets)
- Quran, Chapter 71-17-18 - Nuh (Noah)
- Quran, Chapter 2:126 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 20:73-74 - Taha
- Quran, Chapter 87:14-19 – Al-A'la (The Most High)
- Quran, Chapter 57:25 - Al-Hadid (Iron)
- Quran, Chapter 21:73 - Al-Ambiya (The Prophets)
- Quran, Chapter 19:55 - Maryam (Mary)
- Quran, Chapter 20:14 - Taha
- Quran, Chapter 19:30-31 - Maryam (Mary)
- Quran, Chapter 2:183 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 21:79 – Al-Ambiya (The Prophets)
- Quran, Chapter 2:151 - Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 62:2 – Al-Jummah (The Friday)
- Quran, Chapter 62:5 – Al-Jummah (The Friday)
- Quran, Chapter 62:2 – Al-Jummah (The Friday)
- Quran, Chapter 79:17-19 - An-Naziat (Those Who Pull Out)
- Quran, Chapter 91:9-10 – Ash-Shams (The Sun)
- Quran, Chapter 57:26 - Al-Hadid (Iron)
- Quran, Chapter 4:64 – An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 4:80 – An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 3:31 – Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 8:20-22 - Al-Anfal (The Spoils of War)
- Quran, Chapter 33:21 - Al-Ahzab (The Confederates)
- Quran, Chapter 2:136 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 4:136 - An-Nisa (The Women)
- Quran, Chapter 3:3-4 - Al-Imran (The Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 87:19 - Al-A'la (The Most High)
- Quran, Chapter 5:44 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 21:105 - Al-Anbiya and Chapter 4:163 - An-Nisa
- Quran, Chapter 5:46-47 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:48 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:48 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 7:40 - Al-A'raf (The Heights)
- Quran, Chapter 2:213 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Messengers and the Messages – Umar S al-Ashqar
- Quran, Chapter 3:50 - Al-Imran (The Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 7:157 - Al-A'raf (The Heights)
- Tafheem ul Quran – Abu Ala Mawdudi
- Quran, Chapter 16:101
- Usool at-Tafseer - Bilal Philips.
- Summarized from Iqtida Sirat Mustaqeem – Ibn Taymiya
- Quran, Chapter 42:13
- Quran, Chapter 15:1 - Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract)
- Quran, Chapter 2:185 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 36:2 - Ya-Sin
- Quran, Chapter 50:1 - Qaf
- Quran, Chapter 56:77 - Al-Waqi'a (The Event)
- Quran, Chapter 54:17 - Al-Qamar (The Moon)
- Quran, Chapter 17:9 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 17:41 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 17:46 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 17:82 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 7:3 - Al-A'raf (The Heights)
- Quran, Chapter 5:48 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 2:2 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 69:51 – Al-Haqqah (The Reality)
- Quran, Chapter 4:82, An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 10:37 - Yunus (Jonah)
- Quran, Chapter 17:88 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 10:15 – Yunus (Jonah)
- Quran, Chapter 41:42 - Fussilat (Explained in Detail)
- Quran, Chapter 26:210-212 - Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets)
- Quran, Chapter 15:9 - Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract)
- Quran, Chapter 75:17-19 - Al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection)
- Quran, Chapter 87:6 – Al-Ala (The Most High)
- Quran, Chapter 4:47 – An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 5:15-16 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:19 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:68 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 17:89 - Al-Isra (The Journey by Night)
- Quran, Chapter 18:54, Al-Kahf (The Cave)
- Quran, Chapter 5:44 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:45 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- Quran, Chapter 5:47 - Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread)
- 213 - Quran, Chapter 54:49
- Quran, Chapter 2:210 - Al-Baqara (The Cow)
- Al-Mawrid – Dr Rohi Baalbaki
- Quran, Chapter 25:2
- Tafhim, Al-Mawdudi
- Quran, Chapter 87:1-3
- Tafhim, Al-Mawdudi
- 220- Quran, Chapter 22:70
- Quran, Chapter 32:7
- Quran, Chapter 36:38
- Quran, Chapter 36:39
- Quran, Chapter 8:42
- Quran, Chapter 81:29
- Quran, Chapter 33:38
- 227 - Quran, Chapter 2:117 Al-Baqara (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 19:21 Maryam (Mary) – Also see 19:71
- Quran, Chapter 2:210 Al-Baqara (The Cow)
- Fath al-Baari, from Qadaa wal Qadar – Umar Al-Ashqar
- Quran, Chapter 22:70
- Sahih Al-Muslim
- Tafir Ibn Khatir
- Quran, Chapter 6:59
- Quran, Chapter 57:22
- Quran, Chapter 85:21-22
- Tafsir Ibn Khatir.
- Tafsir Qurtubi
- 294 Quran, Chapter 70:19-20 - Al-Ma'arig (The Ways of Ascent)
- 309 See Al-Hajj “الحج” – The Pilgrimage to Mecca page # 52
- Quran, Chapter 2:150 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 2:148 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Amidah - Genesis 28:17 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amidah
- Quran, Chapter 2:142 – Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- 314 Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 8, Number 429
- Sunnan al-Tirmidhi 317, Sunnan Ibn Maajah 745 (classed as Sahih by al-Albaani in Sahih Ibn Maajah 606).
- Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim
- Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim
- Sahih al-Bukhari (3226), Sahih al-Muslim (2106)
- Sahih al-Bukhari (373), Sahih al-Muslim (556)
- Sahih al-Bukhari (2036)
- Sahih al-Muslim (1167)
- Majmoo al-Fatawa
- 323- Sahih al-Bukhari (Volume 1, Book 8, Number 383), Sahih al-Muslim (Book 004, Number 1129)
- Sunnan Abu Dawood (Book 1, Number 0162)
- Sunnan Abu Dawwed, Musnad Ahmed.
- Musnad Ahmed, Sunnan Abu Dawood.
- Quran, Chapter 15:98-99 - Al-Hijr
- 328 Quran, Chapter 29:45 - al-Ankaboot
- Sahih al-Bukhari & Muslim, Muwatta Malik
- Quran, Chapter 20:132 - Ta-ha
- Quran, Chapter 2:153 - Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 2:45 - Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 18:28 - Al-Kahf
- 334 Quran, Chapter 35:29-30 - Fatir
- Sahih al-Muslim
- 336 Sahih al-Muslim
- Muwatta Malik
- 339 Musnad Imam Ahmed
- Sunnan Abu Dawood
- Sunnan at-Tirmidhi
- Sunnan at-Tirmidhi
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- 344 Sahih al-Bukhari
- Sahih al-Muslim
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- 348 Quran, Chapters: 21:73 – Al-Anbiya (The Prophets), 19:31&55 – Maryam (Mary Mother of Jesus), 7:156 – Al-Araaf (The Heights)
- 349 Quran, 2:219 [al-baqarah] “2:219 And they ask you what they should spend. Say, "The excess [beyond needs]."”
- There is difference of opinion amongst scholars on various matters relating to Zakat. E.g. Imam Ahmed, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi’i, and Imam Shawkani considered there is no Zakat on Jewelry even if it’s made of gold/silver. However, stronger opinion seems to be that Zakat must be paid on them based on general meaning of Verses of Quran and Hadith of Aisha (ra). Umar al-Khattab (ra) and Ibn Masood (ra) is of considered it obligatory on jewelry. Abu Hanifa is also of same opinion.
- There are great differences of opinion between contemporary scholars on matters relating to Business Income and Assets. E.g. some said 2.5% based on analogy with gold/silver, other said 10% based on analogy with Agriculture Income.
- 352 Quran, Chapter 5:55-56 - al-Maida
- Thirmidhi (Daif)
- Quran, Chapter 2:168 - Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 9:103 - At-Tauba. See also 4:36
- Quran, Chapter 3:14 - Ale-Imran
- Quran, Chapter 2:212 - Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 17:30 - al-Isra
- Quran, Chapter 42:12- as-Shoora
- Quran, Chapter 4:29 - al-Nisa
- Quran, Chapter 3:92 - Ale-Imran
- Quran, Chapter 30:39 - ar-Room
- Quran, Chapter 2:276 - al-Baqara
- at-Tirmidhi 1924 – (Classed Hasan)
- Quran, Chapter 7:156 – al-Aaraf
- See Quran, Chapter 2:272 - Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 2:264 - al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 3:180 - ale-Imran. See also 2:268
- Quran, Chapter 104:2-4 - al-Humazah
- Quran, Chapter 2:267 - al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 9:34 - at-Tawba
- Sahih al-Bukhari 6365
- Means insatiable greed for riches. The word “الشُّحَّ” in Arabic is a compound attribute that includes both greed (حرص) and miserliness (class="arabic_kufi">بخل), but closer to miserliness that at times where one needs to spend, he doesn’t spend rather more greedy to receive money. [Sunnan Abi Dawud, commentary by Abu Tahir Zubair, Darrusalam Publications-Urdu]
- Sunan Abi Dawud 1698 (classed Sahih by Al-Albani)
- Quran, Chapter 2:268 – al-Baqara
- Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 418 (classed Sahih by Al-Albani)
- Quran, Chapter 4:37 – al-Nisa
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- Quran, Chapter 64:17 -[at-Taghabbun. See also 2:272
- Quran, Chapter 51:19 - ad-Dhaariyaat. See also at-Tauba 9:60
- Quran, Chapter 2:267 - al-Baqara
- Quran, Chapter 3:133-134 - Ale-Imran
- Quran, Chapter 2:183-187 – al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 3:41 - Ale-Imran (The Family of Imran).
- Sahih al-Muslim
- Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "No prayer is harder for the hypocrites than the Fajr and the Isha prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers at their respective times, they would certainly present themselves (in the mosques) even if they had to crawl." The Prophet added, "Certainly I decided to order [meaning he intended to order] the Mu'adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those, who had not left their houses so far for the prayer, along with their houses." [Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim]
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- Quran, Chapter 2:183 - al-Baqara
- 390 Sahih al-Bukhari
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- [رواه ابن السني و أبونعيم و حسنة السيوطي] - منهج المسلم Minhaj Muslim, Abu Bakar Jazairi
- Quran, Chapter 3:97 – Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 2:150 - Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
- Quran, Chapter 2:131,124 - Al-Baqarah. “2:131 When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists).”. Islam means unconditional submission to Allah’s commands. Islam teaches us that all Prophets (peace be on to them all) submitted to Allah (swt), hence they all are Muslim (one who submits to Allah).
- Quran, Chapter 6:79, al-Anaam
- Quran, Chapter 21:22-27, Al-Ambiyaa
- Quran, Chapter 2:252, Al-Baqarah
- Quran, Chapter 69:21, Al-Ambiyaa
- Quran, Chapter 14:39 - Ibrahim
- Quran, 37:102 - As-Saffat (The Rangers)
- Quran, 37:103-111 - As-Saffat (The Rangers)
- Quran, Chapter 2:24 – Al-Baqarah
- Sunnan at-Tirmidhi
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- Tafsir Ibn Khatir, 22:27. This is a summary of the narrations from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others among the Salaf. And Allah knows best. This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and by Ibn Abi Hatim at length
- التروية means to satisfy thirst. During Prophet’s time because there was no water in Mina, Muzdalfa and Arafat, that’s why people before leaving from Mina (on 9th Dhul Hijjah) fed their Camels well with water so that they can survive 4-5 days of Al-Hajj without further need of water. That’s why this day is called “يوم التروية”.[Mohammad Iqbal Kilani]
- Quran, Chapter 22:28 – Al-Hajj
- Quran, 37:103-111 - As-Saffat (The Rangers)
- Quran, Chapter 3:67 – Ale-Imran (Family of Imran)
- Quran, Chapter 4:95 - An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 4:122 - An-Nisa (The Woman)
- Quran, Chapter 9:72 – At-Tauba (The Repentance)
- Quran, Chapter 9:68 - At-Tauba (The Repentance)
- Quran, Chapter 10:4 - Yunus
- The Sealed Nectar, Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
- خطبات - Khutbaat, Abu Ala Al-Mawdudi
- Tawheed “Oneness of Allah” can be further understood as by dividing it into following categories:
- توحيد الربوبيه: Deals with might and power of Allah. To believe that Allah is most powerful and unique. That Allah (swt) is one and He (swt) has no partners in his domain. He (swt) is eternal, He (swt) doesn’t begets and was not begotten, as mentioned in سورة الخلاص. And that He (swt) the only one who created everything. This is usually referred to as توحيد الربوبيه (Tawheed-ur-Raboobiyah).
توحيدالآسمأوالصفات: Allah (swt) described Himself with beautiful Names and Attributes. These attributes are unique to Him. And no one is similar to Him in anyways. He (swt) is not like anything that the mind can imagine. Allah (swt) said: لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ “There is nothing like Him”. This is usually referred to as توحيدالآسمأوالصفات (Tawheed-u-Asma-wa-Sifaat)
- توحيد الالوهيه: Deals with right of Allah (swt) on His creation. Allah (swt) does not have any rivals in His divinity, in His Rule and in His worship. Since, He is the creator of everything; all of his creation must obey Him (swt) entirely and submit to Him alone. This usually is referred to as توحيد الالوهيه (Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyah) or توحيد العبوديه(Tawheed-ul-Uboodiyah). All prayers and rituals should be towards Allah alone. Allah is Supreme Authority, who is the legislator of Law for judgments. And all enemies of Allah and those who rebel with Allah must be rejected.
- توحيد الربوبيه: Deals with might and power of Allah. To believe that Allah is most powerful and unique. That Allah (swt) is one and He (swt) has no partners in his domain. He (swt) is eternal, He (swt) doesn’t begets and was not begotten, as mentioned in سورة الخلاص. And that He (swt) the only one who created everything. This is usually referred to as توحيد الربوبيه (Tawheed-ur-Raboobiyah).